History never repeats itself on this fascinating playlist. Whether you're a history buff or buffoon, these historical tidbits will excite and inspire. Sourced from leading talk radio shows and premium podcasts.
Activists, Betita Martinez
"Elizabeth Sutherland Martinez was born on December Twelfth Nineteen twenty. Five in Washington DC. Her father immigrated to the United. States for Mexico in one thousand, nine, hundred, seventeen in some ways historic exemplified the American dream. Here. Arrived with little to his name and ended up becoming a professor of Spanish literature at Georgetown University? In other ways his story serve as a cautionary tale he face racism and prejudice and top Petita to think critically about US policies and structures. The Titas American born mother whose family had come from Scotland and Ireland also helped to shape titas perspective. She was a teacher and activist. Batista. Grew up in Chevy. Chase Maryland a suburb of DC or she later wrote she felt like an outsider and what felt like an all white community after high school she left the D. C. Area to attend swarthmore college and graduated with a degree in history and literature in nineteen forty six. After graduation but thiede decided to go by Liz Sutherland in an attempt to better fit in with elites in the arts and Publishing World of New York City? She worked as a translator at the United Nations before moving into research and administration. PETITA studied European and US colonies in Africa and the Pacific Ocean working to shed light on conditions in places that didn't have self sovereignty. She, then worked at the Museum of modern. Art before becoming an editor at Simon and Schuster. In nineteen sixty four Batista became the books and Arts editor at The Nation magazine. PETITA had successfully broken into the New York, city. Cultural, elite. It was no easy feat. PETITA later said that she was a woman in a world dominated by men. Even. So she was adept at moving between worlds. TITA was equally at ease socializing on Fifth Avenue as at the Johns frequented by beat poets of the day. She was a very busy lady. In addition to her day job, the TITA found time to research and write pieces that landed in publications including the national. Guardian Horizon and the New York. Times. She also volunteered for political causes she believed in. petito wanted more than a successful business career she was driven to seek and push for change in the world. In nineteen, sixty, five petito left the nation to work in the civil. Rights movement. She then became the director of the New York Office of the student nonviolent coordinating. Committee or. And Major Civil Rights Organization. She was one of only two Latino women who worked as a paid employee at snack in her role Tita raised money organized events did research on the racial climate the American south. She wrote a book called Letters. Mississippi. About her experience working in the movement not state. Also continued to write for major national publications in nineteen sixty seven but he left snack and turned her focus to feminism before being drawn to the fledgling Chicano movement. Chicano Connex refers to people of Mexican descent born in the United States. Nineteen Sixty Eight petito left New York City for New Mexico. She went back to going by PETITA Martinez rather than the more Anglican sounding Elizabeth Sutherland. In New Mexico petita joined propelled forward what became a movement to promote the rights and celebrate the culture of connects people in the United States. She continued to maximize the power of her pen. She cofounded Allegri. Toe Del Norte a Chicano movement monthly newspaper in Nineteen seventy-three petita back the Chicano Communication Center and Albuquerque and served as its director until nineteen seventy six. The center used arts and media to educate visitors about the culture and struggles at the Chicano community. During her tenure there Petita also wrote another book. This one called five hundred years of Chicano history. From New Mexico petita moved to San Francisco where she continued to fight for a better future she served as the program director at global options an organization working on issues relating to labour conditions and social justice in. Nineteen. EIGHTY-THREE PETITA ran for governor of California as a peace and Freedom, party candy. In nineteen ninety-seven PETITA founded yet another organization the Institute for Multi Racial Justice the Institute served as the embodiment of her life's work to break down barriers between people fighting for justice especially different peoples of color. Following year in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eight, petito book called Deca Loris means all of us. But. Thiede has written and taught throughout her long and impressive career and activism. She's lectured at odds three hundred higher educational institutions. She's received many many honors accolades including as a nominee for the Nobel peace prize in two, thousand and five. Batista is a living example of what it looks like to keep fighting the fight against injustice in our own communities across the country and around the world.
History of Atheism
"On this episode Five Missing Church history, we are trying something a little different usually talk about things within theism and we were very much interested into theistic tradition. But today, let's talk about the opposite of that and the history of atheism. Well, you could say atheism goes all the way back to the very beginning a back to the garden. You can say it goes back to the psalms. Isn't it psalm fourteen verse one that says the fool has said in his heart, there is no god. But what we're talking about on this episode is the history of Atheism in the modern world as an English term. The first time we see it is in the middle of the fifteen hundred s, but we see especially in the modern world of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. If we look at today's landscape, the latest poll I saw goes back to twenty fourteen, but it says that just under three percent of Americans claim to be atheists. Now, if you throw into that category, the so called Nuns, these are folks with no religious. Affiliation and really no religious inclination. Then we're up in the twenty percentile you might call them practical atheists. So we've got confessing atheists and practical atheists where do they all come from? Well, back in the seventeen twenty s we find an atheist, but he seems to be a literary creation is Tom Puzzle and this figure Tom Puzzle a fictional literary creation which show up in the pages of various magazines in the colonies and he would be used from time to time to comment on current events or to add some color to current events. But what we really find in the seventeen hundreds and into the eighteen hundreds is the precursor to atheism, which is deism. So theism of course believes in God who created the world, a god who is active in sustaining the world see ISM has with the idea of sovereignty in providence that God is controlling his universe controlling. As R, C sproul would say every single molecule there are no maverick molecules and also very active in the lives of people and in his universe through the doctrine of Providence God is intimately involved not only in creating the world but sustaining the world and bringing it to fruition and fulfilment of his good pleasure as theism. deism removes God from the daily life and removes God from actively involved in sustaining creation. God sort of creates the earth sort of like you start a top rate and you get it spinning then you just let it go. Well. That's what God did. He created the world and then he just lets it go. He's a little removed. That's DEISM. A precursor to atheism in what we see in the nineteenth and twentieth century as deism floats around especially in the academy and gained traction among the sort of intellectual and philosophical class we see the various philosophical schools that promote atheism. We see this in Europe and we see it in America. We see it didn't thinkers like Frederick Nietzsche who come to the conclusion that God is dead and we killed him that we have arrived at a point in the modern world, where God is no longer tenable thesis and out of that comes a very desperate despairing dark philosophy and worldview called Nielsen. We see it in some of the schools of thought that her apparently more sophisticated in the twentieth century we see it in the logical positive ISM and in some of those more scientific or properly, we should say scientism worldviews that want to reduce everything that is knowable to what is observable by the five senses and so creation the act of creation God himself, the transcendent world, the spiritual world, the world of faith all of this is outside of the. Realm of science according to scientists, and so God is not part of that equation. Well, that's a brief sketch of the history of atheism and I think we're taking right back to psalm fourteen one. Aren't we? The fool has said in his heart, there is no god.
Luther and Difficult Times
"On this episode of five minutes in Church history, we are returning to spend some time with a good friend of ours Martin Luther, and we are looking at Martin Luther. And Difficult Times actually luther had many moments of difficulty in his life. But one of those moments was the peasants revolt of fifteen, twenty, four to fifteen five. Other uprisings in Germany immediately prior to the reformation. But in fifteen, twenty, four to twenty five. This was a much larger insurrection historians estimate that as many as three hundred thousand peasants were involved in this rebellion at various times and in various places. One of the flashpoints for this was in a place called Swabia. Swabia is in southwestern Germany. It's pretty far away from Pittsburgh, a good four hundred or five hundred kilometers or so to the south and slightly West it's down near Munich. It's beautiful country with rivers and. and. Snow. Capped Mountain peaks and fabled castles dotting the landscape in. Swabia is the city of Berg. Will in a few years after this peasants revolt will come into play in a major way and Luther is life. But back in fifteen, twenty, four, fifteen, twenty, five, the peasants in Swabia produced a document called the twelve articles of the peasants in Swabia. It called for in. The list of serfdom they raised various points of contention. and Prince's of the land. It's prefaced with an idea that this is rooted in the Gospel and that their understanding of the application of the Gospel has led them to this. So they published this and this was right in the throes of the peasant rebellion, and of course, the Lord's in the prince's were responding and both sides were claiming luther. Luther was brought into it in fact even the Roman Catholics. Sitting outside of Germany and watching all of this we're blaming Luther for this tumult and for this troubling time in Germany. So Luther responds he writes text that is simply titled a reply to the Twelve articles of the peasants in Swabia. He addresses his thoughts and advice to the peasants. He addresses advice to the nobles and he walk through each of the twelve articles and then he gives a conclusion. To bottom line his advice to the prince's Luther says this for rulers are not appointed to exploit their subjects for their own profit and advantage, but to be concerned about the welfare of their subjects. His bottom line chastisement of the peasants comes a little bit later in his document when Luther says. Preface, that is the preface of their document. You are conciliatory and claim that you do not want to be rebels. You even excuse your actions by claiming that you desire to teach and to live according to the Gospel, and then Luther says your own words and actions condemn you. So Luther was trying to draw attention to both sides of the issues they were having and draw them back to the. Table. So to speak to discuss what Luther says to pursue natural law and to pursue justice and he said to both parties used to do so without assuming that God is on your side and rather just act whether you are Lord or Prince or whether you are a peasant in a way that is keeping with the natural law of God has revealed in the natural order and in the pursuit. Of Justice. So Luther will give us the final word here in a classic statement now dear people there is nothing Christian on either side and nothing Christian is at issue between you. Both Lords and peasants are discussing questions of justice and injustice in natural or worldly terms. Furthermore, both parties are acting against God and are under his wrath as you've heard for God's sake. Then take my advice take A. Hold of these matters properly with justice and not with force or violence and do not start endless bloodshed in Germany for because both of you are wrong and both of you want to avenge and defend yourselves. Both of you will destroy yourselves and God will use one rascal to flog another.
Activists, Anna Arnold Hedgeman
"Today we're talking about a trail-blazing political activist and educator. She was the first black woman to be a member of a oral cabinet in New York City and the only woman on the administrative committee for the nineteen sixty three march on Washington. Let's talk about Anna. Arnold. Henchmen. Anna was born in eighteen ninety nine in Marshall Town. Iowa. Her family later moved to a NOCA- where they were the only black family in the community. In Nineteen Eighteen Anna graduated from high school and enrolled in Hamline University. It was there that she heard a lecture by w e boys and was inspired to pursue a career in education. In nineteen twenty two Anna was the first African American to graduate from HER UNIVERSITY After graduation unable to find a teaching job in Saint Paul Public schools because she was black and found a teaching job but historically, black school in Mississippi called Rust College. On her train ride down south to her new job in Mississippi Anna, had her first experience with Jim. Crow segregation laws a train conductor told her that when the train reached Illinois had to sit in the overcrowded colored section and not in the dining car white people sat. Anna spent two years at rust college before turning to Minnesota. Unable to find a teaching job after once again, facing racial discrimination, she switched careers. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four, and became an executive director of the black. Branch of the Young Women's Christian, association or the YWCA. She continued her executive role for twelve years helping to develop various international programs and education. In nineteen thirty, three Anna married folk musician merit a henchman. In nineteen forty, four Anna was appointed executive director at the F. E. P. C.. The national. Council for a Permanent Fair Employment Practices Committee. She spearheaded the fight against employment discrimination. From nineteen, fifty, four to nineteen fifty eat anna served in the cabinet of Robert F Wagner Junior then New York mayor. She was the first african-american and first female member of a mayoral cabinet. For the next few years she worked in a variety of roles including as a columnist as well as as a public relations consultant. In one thousand, nine, fifty, three Anna spent three months in India as next leader for the State Department. She also unsuccessfully ran for Congress in one thousand, nine, hundred sixty and for New York City Council president in Nineteen. Sixty five. One of Anna's most famous feats was her role in the nineteen, sixty, three march on Washington. We hold these choose to be self-evident. That, all men are created. Was the only woman on the administrative committee working with civil rights leaders, Martin Luther King, junior, Bayard Reston. And Eighth Phillip Randolph. Mobilize people to attend to arrange transportation logistics and to organize food and water for attendees fell on Anna's pleat because King Randolph and the other men she wrote for carrying on all of their regular responsibilities and it was difficult to get them to the meetings. Shortly before the march. Anna was angry when she saw that no women were included as speakers instead randolph was planning to briefly mention some black women activists in his speech although Anna strongly urged for women to be included a speakers on the program her calls were largely dismissed. In the end as a compromise, daisy beats was allowed to speak at the end of the march but her allotted speech time was significantly shorter than all the other male speakers. Anna later captured in her autobiography a moment during the March as she sat in front of the steps of the Lincoln. Memorial. I thought of the one, hundred, eighty, thousand Negro soldiers and the twenty nine thousand black seamen who had moved in at the crucial moment to win the war and save the fragile union she wrote. Most of the two hundred and fifty thousand people present could not know of these men for the history books available to Americans have failed to record their story. In the Nineteen Seventies Anna continued her work as an author and lecturer in the US and abroad. She wrote two books about her life's work. The trumpet of sounds in Nineteen, sixty four and the gift of chaos in one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy, seven. Anna was honored for her working race relations by various organizations throughout her life and was awarded honorary doctorate degrees from both Howard and Hamline University's. She also received the Pioneer Woman Award in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, three from the New York State Conference on Midlife and older women. Anna died in nineteen ninety she was ninety years old.
Elizabeth Fry, The Prison Angel
"Hello from Wonder Media Network. I'm Jenny Kaplan and this is encyclopedia Monica. Today's activist was a major proponent of prison reform in Britain. She's known as the Angel of prisons. Let's talk about Elizabeth Fry. Elizabeth Gurney was born in Norwich Norfolk in seventeen eighty to a wealthy quaker family. Her Father John was a successful banker and her mother Catherine was a member of the family that founded Barclays Bank which still operates is one of the largest banks in the world. Elizabeth was the odd one out amongst her siblings. She experienced mood swings and had difficulty learning which biographers attribute to her dyslexia. Elizabeth once said I was thought and called very stupid and obstinate I certainly did not like learning nor did I believe attend my lessons when Elizabeth was twelve years old her mother passed away and Elizabeth was left to care for her younger sisters and brothers. Eighteen hundred at the age of twenty. Elizabeth Mary Joseph Fry London banker and quaker together. They had many children most sources say eleven, five sons and six daughters though some sources suggest that had even more kids. Elizabeth was an observant quaker and frequently worshipped at the Friends Meeting House. It was there the she heard Williams savory preach about the importance of altruism and philanthropy. His words inspired Elizabeth to help those in need. In eighteen thirteen elizabeth visited newgate prison, which was notorious for its filthy state and its dismal treatment of its prisoners. Elizabeth was appalled to see such harsh conditions. Women and children were tightly packed in small spaces with little room to wash themselves or cleaned their clothes, and while many of the newgate prisoners had committed severe crimes, some of them had not. And others hadn't even received a trial. Elizabeth was determined to act the next day she returned to the prison with fresh loaves of bread and clean clothes, but she had sewn herself. She distributed them to the prisoners and encourage them to keep their cells clean and find ways to be hygienic in the oppressive environment. Elizabeth didn't come back to newgate until eighteen sixteen due to financial difficulties within her family. But upon her return, she dove back into the Work Elizabeth educated the children of Newgate who were imprisoned with their parents teaching them practical skills like reading and selling. In eighteen seventeen, Elizabeth founded the Association for the improvement of female prisoners along with twelve other women she worked to advance prison reform and to provide female prisoners with education and tools for employment Elizabeth fought for the idea that prison should be based round rehabilitation rather than punishment she wrote it must indeed be acknowledged that many of our own penal provisions as they produced no effect appear to have no other end the punishment of the guilty. Eighteen nineteen Elizabeth wrote prisons and Scotland in the north of England and encouraged her society friends to visit newgate themselves. At. That time Britain was in the practice of sending prisoners to penal colonies in. North. America Australia and India. At newgate. Prisoners en route to be transferred to convict ships, rebound by chains and unable to move around and tiny carts people in the streets pelted them with garbage. Elizabeth convinced the governor of new gate to carry the women enclosed carriages rather than open ones and to ensure that all the women and children had enough food to eat on their voyage. Elizabeth also gave the prisoner sewing tools, bibles and other necessities to accompany them on their long journeys. With the help of her efforts, the act of transporting criminals so far away lands was prohibited in eighteen, thirty seven. Prior to that change in policy Elizabeth visited every convict ship bound for Australia for more than twenty five years. Throughout the eighteen twenties, Elizabeth inspected prison conditions and continued to advocate for the rights of prisoners. She presented her findings to the House of Commons committee in doing. So she became the first woman to present evidence to parliament. Elizabeth's ideas influenced the eighteen twenty three jails act which introduced a series of prison
Civil Rights Activist, Patricia Stephens Due
"Hello from Wonder Media Network I'm Jenny Kaplan, and this is encyclopedia will Manica. All month we're talking about activists. Women who stood up against injustice and four a better world. Today we're talking about an American civil rights activist whose work began as a student and extended throughout her life and beyond. She was one of the leaders of the sit in and Jalen movements continuing to fight for a more just society even when faced with serious harm. According to The New York Times her FBI file was over four hundred pages long. Let's talk about Patricia Stevens do. Patricia Gloria Stevens was born on December ninth nineteen, thirty, nine fifteen months after her sister Priscilla who would go on to be partner in many organizing efforts. Patricia was the second of three kids born to Lottie Mae Powell Stevens, and Horace Walter Stevens. The Stevens family lived in Belgrade Florida for most Patricia Youth. By the time she was thirteen years old Patricia was very aware of the discrimination she faced for being black and was ready to protest. She and her sister refused to go to the designated colored window at their local dairy queen. Instead, they stood in line for the window marked whites only. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, Eighty, seven Patricia started school at Florida Am University. Two years later in Nineteen fifty-nine Patricia and Priscila attended a workshop put on by the Congress of racial equality or core on nonviolent civil disobedience. Patricia then started a local chapter of the organization in order to continue the work, she tried to tackle it just thirteen years old integration. The following year on February. Twentieth Nineteen Sixty Patricia, her sister, and some other students sat down at a whites only lunch counter at a Woolworth Tallahassee and refused to get up until they were served. Nineteen days earlier, four guys sat down at a similar lunch counter in Greensboro North Carolina officially kicking off. Since movement across the South Patricia and ten of her peers were arrested rather than paying three hundred dollar Fine Patricia and. Out Forty nine days in jail. Their determination to serve their time as a statement became a norm when others were arrested and charged on fairly. Patricia leadership and courage caught the attention of people around the country support of the cause including Jackie Robinson Eleanor Roosevelt Harry Belafonte, and James. Baldwin. Dr Martin. Luther King. Junior. Sent the sisters telegram that said. Going to jail for a righteous cause as a badge of honor and a symbol of dignity. After she was finally released, Patricia continued the fight to change her city and country. One of her fellow activists was a man named John D do junior. He was law school at Florida Am University. The two got married in nineteen, sixty three and would go on to have three children together for their honeymoon Patricia and John went to the march on Washington and heard Dr King's I have a dream speech. The following year in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four, Patricia took on a new role in corps. She served as field secretary for a voter education and Registration Project in North Florida under her leadership. program. More. Voters than any other regional program in the south. Patricia also worked to improve the lives of workers, the poor and other underserved populations in the US. But her activism took a physical toll on her. After being hit in the face by a can of tear gas, Patricia is were injured and she was forced to wear dark glasses for the rest of her life in nineteen sixty, seven, ten years after she enrolled. Patricia graduated from Florida Am. University it took her all of a decade to get her degree because she spent periods of time traveling around the US to rally energy behind the civil rights movement. She was also suspended multiple times by the
Josephine Butler and the fight for women's equality
"Let's talk about Josephine Butler. Josephine was born on April thirteenth eighteen, twenty eight in Northumberland, the northeastern region of England to a prominent family. Her Father John. Gray was a wealthy landowner and cousin to the British prime. minister. Earl. Grey who led between eighteen, thirty and eighteen, thirty four. Josephine's father was a strong supporter of progressive social reforms value. He passed along to his daughter one of Seven Children Josephine was educated by her father at home. He educated both sons and daughters equally an uncommon practice for the time in eighteen fifty two at the age of Twenty Four Josephine Mary George Butler an examiner of schools who shared her commitment to social reforms. In their first five years of marriage the couple had four children in eighteen sixty, three Josephine's only daughter and youngest child Eva fell to her death. To cope with the overwhelming grief, Josephine turned to charity work. Josephine. started by finding shelter for the city's homeless women often taking them into her own home. Many of these women were prostitutes suffering the terminal stages, venereal diseases. Josephine also worked with Aunt Jemima. Cloth a prominent suffragette. To establish academic courses for advanced study for women. In eighteen sixty seven. Appointed president of the north of England Council for Higher Education of women. She campaigned for Cambridge. University, to expand opportunities available to women, students, and her efforts resulted in one of Cambridge's all women, colleges, Newnham College. During this time Josephine published multiple books about the social issues. She championed her views on a woman's place in society conflicted with some feminists of the time. Straight from the idea that women should be viewed in the same terms as men instead she argued that women deserve the vote because they were different than men and had a separate responsibility within society to protect and care for the week. To Josephine ensuring a woman's right to vote was away to strengthen the morality of the nation. In eighteen sixty nine Josephine began publicly campaigning against the contagious diseases acts of eighteen, sixty, six, eighteen, sixty, nine. These acts were initially introduced to curtail the spread of venereal diseases in the armed, forces. But in order to do so sex workers were heavily targeted and penalized. Under, these acts police were given the authority to arrest suspected prostitutes living in seaports and military towns and subject them to forced medical examinations. Have worked with sex workers at the start of her career. Josephine felt sympathy for these woman. She believed they were forced into this work through low wages and minimal opportunity for Josephine these acts represented troubling double standard. Sex workers were punished, but the men who sought out there surfaces were not. Josephine was a powerful orator who drew large crowds as she traveled the country gaining support for the Act's repeal. George now, a prominent figure in academia was criticized for letting his wife discuss sex in public. Despite threats to his career George, continue to support Josephine's advocacy. And Josephine charged on. She teamed up with other prominent social workers to expose the insidious world of human trafficking and child prostitution in London. Her hard work paid off. In eighteen eighty, five parliament passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act which raised the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen. And the following year eighteen, eighty, six parliament formally repealed the contagious diseases act. In her final years Josephine supported the suffrage movement and published her most famous work personal reminiscences of a great crusade. It promoted social reform women's education and equality. Josephine. Butler died on December thirtieth nineteen O six. She was seventy eight years old. Her Fiber Women's equality especially for those who often exist on the margins of society remains highly relevant to this day.
Who Is Activist, Ella Baker
"From Wonder Media Network I'm Jenny. Kaplan and this is encyclopedia will Manica. Very. Excited to present our. September. This month we're talking about activists. Women who stood up and fought against injustice and for a better world today, we're talking about a woman who doesn't often receive the recognition she deserves for her behind the scenes activism. As a prolific activist, she had a hand in society changing work major civil rights leaders turned to her for her organizational skills. Let's talk about Ella Josephine Baker. Sisters in the struggle for human dignity and freedom. I am here to represent. The struggle that has gone on for three hundred years. Ella Baker was born on December thirteenth nineteen o three in Norfolk Virginia. She grew up in North Carolina on the very same land where her grandparents were enslaved a few decades earlier. Ella's mother was part of the Local Missionary Association. She helped feed their hungry neighbors and encouraged women to be a force for positive change this activism and kindness stuck with Allah. Ellis studied at Shaw University in Raleigh North Carolina and graduated as Class Valedictorian nineteen twenty seven shortly after she moved to New York City in Nineteen thirty ELA joined several women's organizations and served as national director of the Young Negroes Cooperative League that organization focused on supporting the economic development of the black community in nineteen forty Ella started working as a field secretary for the N. Double A. C., p. she moved up to work as director of branches after just three years. She later also served as the president of the New York. City branch. Then in Nineteen fifty-six, Ella Co created the organization in French. Which bought the oppressive Jim Crow laws in the south. The following year a move to Atlanta to help with Martin Luther King Junior's Organization the southern Christian Leadership Conference. At that time, the SC L. C. was a brand new venture. It was created after successes like the Montgomery bus boycott black leaders including Martin Luther. King Junior created the organization to assemble more boycotts and. Throughout the south. But for the venture to be successful, it would take a masterful organizer while Martin Luther King Junior took the reins as the SEC's public figurehead Ella worked behind the scenes setting the organization's agenda and framing the issues. She organized the crusade for citizenship a campaign to support voting rights. For African Americans, she also helped Rodney Atlanta s ELC headquarters and even served as a temporary director for several months after the resignation of the previous office holder, Ellis desire to focus on the issues and to have influence over the. Direction often clashed with the group's main. Right, as ellos considering resigning in nineteen sixty radical act of civil disobedience inspired her to take a new direction on February first black college students in Greensboro. North Carolina where I'm from refused to leave a lunch counter. Worth's where they'd been denied service for Joseph McNeil Franklin McCain and their to college dorm mates that time was February first one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty. The day they walked into a Greensboro. Woolworth's and sat down at the segregated lunch counter. Ella wrote a letter that encourage students across the south to join forces and take similar acts of protest. She also organized a meeting at Shaw University for the students who spearheaded the citizens from those meetings, the student nonviolent coordinating committee or Snick was created. snick would have a profound impact on the civil rights movement. Ella encourage snack to focus on practicing group centered activism rather than leader centered activism in contrast to the SE L. C.'s leadership style with Mlk at the forefront. Under, this method, of Leadership Snick ran many successful initiatives including the nineteen sixty one freedom rides and the nineteen sixty, four freedom summer and Mississippi L. continued her activism through the sixties. She was also a consultant for the Southern Conference Education Fund and organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic. Party she later returned to New York City and continued her work until she passed away on. December thirteenth nineteen eighty six. She was eighty three years old. Ella Baker was an incredible driving force behind much of the public civil rights work. We learn about in school while she never sought the spotlight she was committed to improving life for future generations
Black Power and Jewish Politics with Marc Dollinger
"So highmark. Welcome to the PODCAST. Great to be here. Thank you. Yeah. I'm really glad that you can join us for I. Think Really Important and relevant conversation. I read through the book I think it's a fantastic book. I think that you're offering a revision of some of the ways in terms of how people have understood. Especially, Jewish people have understood the question of the history of black Jewish relations. You maybe WANNA get US started off by saying a brief word about your argument in the book and what it is that you're putting forward. Yes, sure when I was growing up as a white suburban Jewish kitten in in La I learned that the civil rights movement was the story of a black Jewish alliance that brought heroic Jews to the south where they fought on behalf of racial justice until the mid nineteen sixties. The. Rise of black militancy of. Black Power of anti-semitism. Community purge Jews and ended what was a wonderful alliance. When I looked in the archives though and began researching the book. I discovered an entirely different story emerging instead of sort of the Dr King Rabbi Hessel arm in arm narrative that I was raised on. I. Found that even White Male Jewish leaders of National Jewish organizations understood as early as the nineteen fifties. There was a fundamental difference between being white and Jewish in America and being black? In. America. And they in fact, knew that there would be limits to the black Jewish alliance and That was my first sort of shocking discovery in terms of revising I knew growing up. It's a really jarring perspective for a lot of people Jewish people I want to say who grow up thinking about and being taught about this alliance within the civil rights movement and the involvement of Jews within the civil rights movement. So I think that what you're offering here is a almost radical perspective, a radical revision of how we understand the role of the Jews in the civil rights movement. I'd like to frame it s a both and and it's really important I to acknowledge the extraordinary American Jewish participation in the civil rights movement and in social justice causes. When you look at the ethnic groups in America, Jews are the most liberal. Progressive. Democratic. Party. Now Voting Group only African Americans vote more. And by that standard I think there's justifiable pride amongst American Jews for the work that we have done and those perspectives have been covered in the historic. Already. What's also true is even as many heroic. Jews. Did go to the south to register voters and in some tragic cases, of course, gave their lives most Americans use didn't. And there became almost sort of in the north, a sense that watching on TV, what the Jewish heroes were doing extended to them as well. So what my book is trying to do is take a broader more inclusive look of all Americans, or at least white American Jews, and now we get to see more complexity to what's going on. So I don't see this as as undermining. The existing truth about Jewish involvement but I see it hopefully deepening it and making it more complex. Why do you think that it's important to offer this complexity to the narrative of first of all? It's surprising in and of itself there's something that custodians recall historical memory, which is what actually happened and what we remember or think happened what we were taught happened is often different. In fact, there's a history of historical memory which says the way in which we choose to remember or forget or analyze or spin. If you want to be more cynical, our historical past actually is meaningful in and of itself. So what I found, when I was surprised to find was that as early as the nineteen fifties, Jewish leaders were calling out the limits of white Jewish liberalism and the inevitability of of African American autonomy and what would become the rise of black power. So at the very time that the public narrative was consensus arm in arm. But I love the called peace love and Bobby. Sherman. Everything's great. At that moment, even the Jewish leaders who were engaged in that kind of consensus politics understood its limits. That's the part that we've forgotten. I think over the last fifty or sixty years and I think it's really important especially in today's climate for us to understand better that it was always deep and complicated an intense and we knew about it at the time. And then the real story is how in journalism and historiographer and in public memory, we sort of forgotten that element until we've remembered it again with the national reckoning on race
My Garden Has Been Taken Over by Weed. Kill Them Now or in Spring?
"Oh. We also had a question at Fred at plan talk radio DOT COM from John, and he says due to reasons beyond my control. This this goes for a lot of us. This year my garden has been taken over by weeds and grasses, and he says, should I sprayed kill them before plowing under this fall? Well, I'm going to say it's probably best to do. So especially if he's let them into the flower head stage and seed stage. Now. It's not gonNA make a tremendous amount of difference. And it depends on a bit what. What the composition of the weeds a- If they're perennials. Then, I'd go ahead and do the spraying the by perennials. I mean plantain Buckthorn But Korn. Danta lines, clover, violets, those things that will come back on their own route. I would say it's best to get them killed and knock down however when you turn new ground. there is a range of seed content in that soil in the top at least eight inches. If not more, you're going to bring up some fresh seeds. You don't get rhythm all at one time. However, I guess ask to answering the question. If there if it's heavy and perennials, I would go ahead and get my just if it's just foxtail and crabgrass and well, I don't even know what else to say I don't think he would have to. But because the first frost or freeze here is GONNA kill those guys but the the the ones that I mentioned I are. Coming back there on on their own route, the dandelions the little puff balls at. Around in the Are Now plants of on new route they're anywhere from an inch and a half to three inches wide and they're just waiting to be ugly later this fall and or next spring. So I think to kill is probably going to be an advantage but just so he doesn't think he's going to have all clean soil to start over with in the spring some of that stuff's going to come back and come back but I think the the starting point would be to spray and kill and Most of the things that you would. will be needed to will need to go onto live growth be absorbed by the plant taken to the root root dies, and then the top ghost is more or less the essence of it, and therefore I would say get it done soon. A. Most. Is and so on the veggies have been more or less harvested and done. So I think soon here because we've got less than thirty days now for well approximately thirty days for for lawn grows grass growth and so on I think that's the best way to go.
Ice, Ice, Maybe? The History Of Keeping Cool
"It's May eighteen o one, an Vanna Cuba John and Frederick Tudor the teenage sons of a wealthy lawyer in Boston or lying in the shade on their deck trying to find relief from the Heat John Shifts in his chair and MOANS. This is not making me feel any better in fact I feel worse. Nineteen years old John has a bone illness that's attacking me making him an invalid. His father had suggested that his younger brother Frederick accompanied him to a warm climate or John could convalesce relocating to somewhere warm was a common prescription for all kinds of ailments frederick advocated for Vanna thinking they might be able to get in on selling coffee or sugar but the heat and humidity are unlike anything they've felt before John's health is worse than ever. Frederick props himself up and takes a drink fruit juice from the glass next to him. I can't stand that all the drinks are warm here, but I wouldn't do a piece of ice from Rockwood. The tutors own a farm outside Boston called Rockwood that has a pond nearly every winter the pond freezes solid and they harvest the ice storing it in an ice house to preserve it through the summer. It's a common custom among well off new Englanders and allows them to enjoy cold drinks and ice cream even when it's hot outside Oh, don't even talk about ice it's too painful to think about it if we can't have it Frederick sits up. You, think we could sell ice here. I don't know maybe. Frederick is nothing if not full of ideas, John used to love plotting like this with him, but his illness has worn away at its enthusiasm for the future Frederick continues talking. We could ship it from home magin. What a luxury ice would be here I think about it isis free. So we just have to pay transportation costs we could make a fortune. Frederick dropped out of school at thirteen spurning plans for him to follow in his father's an older brother's footsteps to Harvard. He chose instead to apprentice in a store hoping to make a name for himself as an entrepreneur. He's now seventeen and in the four years since he started, he's made little progress. He spends most of his time hanging around Rockwood dreaming up schemes. John is skeptical of this latest idea. It would melt on the journey. You'd have nothing to sell by the time we got here I bet that's a solvable problem. John can't focus on that right now he's in too much pain feels to poor. He doesn't like the idea of returning to a Vanna even if it would make him rich, it's only may I can't bear to know how hot it's going to be in July or August we need to get out of here. You're right. It'll be warm enough by now. that. Boston can't do you harm. Let's go home and get you some ice. Not, much later, the two brothers were on a ship bound back to the United States. But John's health continued to deteriorate. January eighteen, O two, you passed away. But the idea Frederick hatched during their time together in Vanna lived on. Eighteen Oh, five Frederick had convinced his older brother William and his cousin. In on the proposition, the other two would sail ahead and find buyers and a place to store the ice. When it arrived Frederick would get to work arranging the shipment from. Boston. Their. Plan was to promote their product as a luxury good to the rich French colonials but selling ice was going to be harder than Frederick. Matching. Ice Come try this exotic northern delicacy I from Boston. It's march eighteen o six in the bustling market Saint Pierre Martinique, and Frederick is desperately trying to sell the ice off his boat. When he arrived in Pierre Three days before you learn that the only buyers, William and James had secured were prominent people who had been promised free box vice not to mention they hadn't found anywhere to store, and now he's stuck with a boat full of melting cargo. He's been reduced hawking an expensive luxury, the marketplace where common people by common goods. This was not plan. Thrusts the flyer toward a man walking through the market and caused him in French i-it's direct from Boston three days. Only the man pushes the flyer away ice. What am I supposed to do with that? Enjoy it in a cold drink. It's refine refreshment. You can even make ice-cream cold drinks. Why would I want that? Besides doesn't Melt if you wrap it in a blanket, it will protect it from the sun on the way home slow the melting it's all on the fire. He tries again the hand the man has pamphlet but demand waves it away doesn't matter. I, have nowhere to store it anyway you walks away shaking his head and muttering about what a fool Frederick Hitz. Frederick size and frustration. He had projected that he could sell ten thousand dollars ice on this voyage so far he sold fifty. A man approaches him. Are you the owner of the boat with the ice in it Frederick? Perks up I am. Can. I interest you in a block? I'm selling it for sixteen cents a pound it's the highest quality ice. Sixteen cents, it's much luxury as stake. If you say so anyway, no, I don't want any ice I just figured you'd be heading back to Boston soon, there can't be much of that ice left right I'm looking for a ship to take a load of sugar projects. Face falls taking this load of sugar back to Boston, is not a bad way to mitigate some of his losses but he's still disappointed. Yes I i. think we can come to an arrangement. Fantastic. Ultimately Frederick lost four thousand dollars on its first attempt to sell ice for those dollars was about four times what an average worker made in a year, but he didn't give. Over the next six years, he made progress in storing the ice both on the ship packed in. SAWDUST and building ice houses with better and better insulation to store it while he sold, it is marketing skills. We're getting better to you pitched cafes on making ice cream and offer chill drinks for a higher price. But despite the progress he was still failing to turn a profit. Meanwhile, Frederic's father lost most of the family fortune in a real estate deal without the. Family money to cover his losses Frederick couldn't pay his debts and in eighteen twelve, he was thrown into a debtor's jail
Musicians: Barbara Strozzi
"Barbara Stroke Z.. Was Born in Venice Italy in sixteen nineteen. Her mother was Isabella are Zony a servant in the household of the famous poet Giulio Stroke. while. Giulio became Barbara's adopted father. It's possible that he was also her biological father. Either Way Julia was a profound influence and source of support. Barbara's life. When Barbara was young she received an education in music composition. Truly used his connections with Venezia's artistic and cultural elite to provide his daughter with opportunities. In. Sixteen thirty seven Giulio created a music focused branch of an intellectual organization he attended. Barbara hosted the group performed some of her music at the gatherings there. She was also exposed to other academically minded musicians, some of whom dedicated volumes of music to her. Barbara I launched her composing career in sixteen, Forty four with a volume called first book of Madrigal's she dedicated the book to the Grand Duchess of Tuscany. She wrote so that under an oak of gold, it may rest secure against the lightning of slander prepared for it. In other words she was ready for some serious criticism perhaps particularly due to her gender. But the musical community ended up largely appreciating her work though she did face some accusations that she was a cortisone. Barbara's music was typically secular while many other male composers of the era focused on creating music for the church. Barbara was one of the most influential secular composers of the time and gained a rare amount of public recognition for a woman in her position. The men in the field generally wrote more music than she did but Barbara ensured that more of her music was published than there's. From Sixteen, Forty, four to sixteen sixty four Barbara published eight books of music. The one of them has since been lost. This high volume of work indicates the Barbara's music was well liked however, after her father Giulio passed away in sixteen, Fifty, two Barbara may have faced some financial troubles. She was Julius only air but didn't seem to receive any money after his death. Publishing. So much music may have been an attempt to find financial stability even after Giulio passed away Barbara's work was profoundly influenced by him. Mustafa of her compositions were based on texts perhaps a result of her father figures background in poetry. She used a technique called risky to Tibo llandough meaning she emphasized the words in her music with minimal musical accompaniment. Barbara's bold. Experimental style influenced music for generations to come and cemented her place as one of the few female Italian composers at the is still studied today. Not, much is known about Barbara's life after her final publication in sixteen, Sixty four though she occasionally liked to sing her own work and associated with famous opera composers of the era. She never performed an opera she also never married, but she did have four children who she raised as a single mother. Her two daughters joined a convent and one of her sons became a monk. Barbara Strokes he passed away on November Eleventh Sixteen, Seventy seven in Padua Italy.
The Last US Civil War Pension
"Triplet was born in Nineteen thirty in Wilkes County North Carolina Sixty five years after the end of the civil war. How she ended up receiving civil war pension is one of those stories that you wouldn't believe if it wasn't true. But when you do the math, it actually does workout. Her father was most triplet was a veteran of the civil war. He had the distinction of having fought for both the confederacy and the Union. He was a member of the fifty third North Carolina infantry who fought in the battle of Gettysburg. On the way to Gettysburg most fell ill and was hospitalized the illness probably saved his life because most of his unit was either killed or wounded during the battle. After he recovered, he deserted the confederates and joined up with the third north, Carolina mounted infantry which fought for the union. The unit was known as Kirks raiders after commander Colonel, George Washington. Kirk. After the war Mos- returned to North Carolina got married and started a family his wife Mary passed away in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety. As with many older civil war veterans, they would often take younger second wives especially during the Great Depression as their pension was considered a source of stable income. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four at the age of seventy eight MOS married his second wife Alita who was twenty nine years old Mohsen Alita had five children. One of them Irene was born in one, thousand, nine, thirty when Mos- was eighty-three. Irene was just eight years old when her father died at the age of ninety two after returning home from a civil war veterans reunion. Irene had a cognitive disability which made her eligible to continue to receive her father civil war pension after his death as a quote, helpless child of a veteran. She received her father's pension of seventy three dollars and thirteen cents every month from her father's death in one thousand, nine, thirty, eight to her death in. Twenty twenty. The amount was never for inflation. The entire time it's estimated she received approximately seventeen thousand dollars over the course of her life. In addition to having received the last civil war pension, she was also the last child of a civil war veteran. The second to last child of a civil war veteran also had an interesting story in two thousand. Eighteen Fred Upton passed away at the age of ninety seven. His father was William H Upton. Who is a civil war veteran and the former governor of the state of Wisconsin who was elected in eighteen ninety four. Because of the occurrence of young women marrying much older men with pensions, the passing of the last civil war widow wasn't that long ago either in two thousand and eight motty Hopkins died at the age of ninety three in thousand, nineteen, thirty, four at the age of nineteen she married eighty six year old William Cantrell who served as a sixteen year old soldier in the confederate army. Blast Union widow was Gertrude Janeway who passed away in two thousand three. The last surviving documented veteran of the civil war was Albert Wilson who died at the age of one, hundred, six in one thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, six he was a fourteen year old drummer boy in the first Minnesota. Heavy. Artillery Regiment. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, six there was an episode of the TV Game Show I've got a secret with a ninety five year old man named Samuel Seymour. The panelists had to guess what the guest secret was. Samuel Seymour. Was the last surviving witness to Abraham Lincoln's assassination. He was a five year old boy was taken affords theater and said in the balcony across the theater from the present it. there. Is a clip of the appearance on Youtube and I highly recommend viewing it if you're interested in such things. The. Last surviving person who was born as a slave in the United States was Peter Mills who died in Nineteen seventy-two he was born into slavery in eighteen sixty one and live to be one hundred, ten, one person was both born into bondage and live to see the moon landing. The last surviving veteran of the Revolutionary War was John Gray who died in eighteen sixty, eight at the age of one, hundred four he's one of the only people who live to see both the revolution and the civil war oddly enough he was born on George Washington's estate Mount Vernon and his father died in the revolutionary. War. The, last surviving veteran of Napoleon's army was a Polish man Vincent Markowitz who died at one hundred and eight in nineteen three and the last veteran of the war of eighteen twelve was Hiram Cronk who passed away in one thousand, nine, five at the age of one, hundred and five. In Two thousand eleven at the age of one hundred and ten American Frank. Buck was the last surviving veteran of World War One in the world to pass away. Demographers estimate that the last veteran of World War Two will pass away sometime around the year twenty, forty four. It will probably be someone who fought at a very young age and lives to be at least one, hundred and ten. It's amazing how the lives of some people can span such incredible lengths of time and how we can have lives that overlap them. We think of the civil war is being a long time ago. Yet we're only two or three generations removed from people who lived through all of these events.
"Hello from Wonder Media Network I'm Jenny Kaplan and this is encyclopedia will manteca today's musician was a piano virtuoso and composer at a time when women rarely performed or wrote their own work although many of her compositions remain unknown her collaborations with her husband resulted in one of the most fruitful musical partnerships at the early nineteenth century. Let's talk about Clara Schumann. Clara Josephine was born in Eighteen nineteen in Leipzig Germany her father Frederik peak was a sought after piano instructor. Frederick married one of his students, Marianne and together they had five children, Clara and her four brothers. Is Five her parents divorced Clara, and her brothers became the legal property of their father. Clara's mother remarried and moved to Berlin which limited contact between them two letters, periodic visits. Frederick Recognize Clara's early musical talents and dedicated himself to her musical education. Under his tutelage she studied Violin Piano Music, theory, and business. Frederick even sent Clara around Germany to study with some of the finest composition teachers in Leipzig Dresden and Berlin. In eighteen twenty nine at the age of eleven, Clara made her performance debut in Leipzig Clara began touring in Germany France and Austria. She was one of the few pianists of her time who played by memory and she performed not only her own compositions but also those that were more well known by Johann Sebastian Bach Domenico Scarlatti. Ludwig. Van Beethoven and Robert Schumann. Robert Schumann due to a self inflicted injury to his right hand was the only composer among his contemporaries who did not play his own work. Clara took on his work for him. In nineteen thirty, one at the age of twelve she gave her first performance of his piano composition papillon. Over the course of the next five years, Clara, became wildly infatuated with Robert Schumann the match made her father very concerned at that point Clara was already famous and successful performer. Robert was a relatively unknown composer. Frederic. Saw The match as beneath Clara and so at the age of Seventeen Clara's father center to Dresden in hopes of severing ties between the two. But as is the case with many famed love stories. Parental intervention didn't go as planned. Despite, Clara's demanding performing and touring schedule. Clara and Robert wrote to each other in secret over many months using an intermediary to deliver their letters. When the two decided to wet. Strong resistance from Clara's father in nineteenth century Germany, a woman could not marry without her father's consent and Frederick refused to give it. Robert took Frederick to court over his refusal and Frederick countered with charges against Robert After nearly a year of legal battles the court finally sanctioned the marriage the couple married in September eighteen forty one day before Clare Clara's twenty first birthday and settled in Leipzig for years. Later, Robert suffered a severe breakdown and the couple relocated to Dresden at the recommendation of Roberts doctors. Over the course of their marriage Clara was pregnant ten times and had eight children despite having such a large family Clark continued to perform, compose, teach piano, and support Robert in his career. Despite Clare's existing professional success, it was Robert's career that was prioritized in the marriage nevertheless clar used the arrangement to her advantage. She performed her own arrangements of Roberts pieces during her concert tours and Robert in kind what insert phrases from Clarence compositions
1910 Edinburgh Missionary Conference
"In June of Nineteen Ten World Missionary Conference took place in. Edinburgh Scotland. This conference met for a total of ten days. It was international it was ecumenical. About twelve hundred delegates from mostly Europe and America and representing all sorts of Protestant denominations came together to spend these days talking about the need for world missions world missions can look like. In the beginnings then of the twentieth century, you can trace the roots of the World Council of Churches Actually. Back, to the Edinburgh Missionary Conference. The World Council of Churches was established in one, thousand, nine, hundred, forty eight, and you could pull on the threads of various groups that led up to it and you'd be taken right back to Edinburgh Missionary Conference. It was a very pivotal moment in the twentieth century. So let's take a look at five aspects of the Edinburgh Missionary Conference. I as we've mentioned, it was ecumenical. Now at that time, it was predominantly Protestant when we're talking about ecumenical there were no Roman Catholics present. There were no Greek Orthodox president there were only Protestant denominations present. But as a term ecumenical continued to expand and expand and broaden in broaden. So. I you talk about within Protestant denominations then accu medical would come to mean Protestant and Catholic and Jewish. Then you would add Islam then you would add eastern religions today the word ecumenical is very broad in very elastic. Well. The second thing about the end borough missionary conference is related to that question of the Ecumenical Movement in that is the question of inclusive ism or pluralism. Then Borough Missionary Conference consisted of eight major reports, and one of them was on this topic the missionary message in relation to the Non Christian world and they began raising questions is Jesus Christ the only way Is the Bible, the true and final. Authority is Christianity that is biblically faithful Christianity is that the only true religion and so you can begin to see how those questions could be answered in the wrong way and lead to very deleterious negative consequences. Well, that's the question of inclusive ISM and pluralism. A third aspect of the Edinburgh missionary conferences that it did increase attention to missions. The nineteenth century, the eighteen hundreds was a great century of modern missions. It was the century of William Carey missionary. Expansion. Well, the twentieth witnessed even greater missionary activity, and during the Twentieth Century missionary activity was carried on even during and despite of world wars travel got much easier and so missions expansion increase. So the twentieth century was a great century of modern missions. One aspect of this in particular is our fourth thing and that is the impact on Africa. Of course, leading into nineteen hundred Africa was dominated by Islam and by the folk religions that were across the continent. But after this conference, significant attention was given to Africa and there was this major push missions. into the continent of Africa one book chronicling this was published in one, thousand, nine, hundred, thousand, five, it was entitled Africa, an Open Door, and so the Edinburgh Missionary Conference inspired and encouraged mission endeavors. In Africa we'll fifthly the Edinburgh conference served to remind the delegates and the constituencies they represented of the great need of the big world that we live in in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ten, the world's population was one point five, billion people. In June, of twenty, twenty. The world population is estimated at seven point seven billion. It's the big world and that's a big need.
This Am a Minstrel Stereotype, Right?
"From New York City this is Lexicon Valley. A podcast about language I'm John Mc, water and this week you know what I'm going to do frankly what I usually do, which is just bring you in what was I thinking about over the past week or two? And it was a bunch of things but I happened to be revising an academic paper that I'm writing and that paper happens to be about black English I don't usually do those but I mean exception with this one because it's a topic that really grabs me and you know when deciding what to do the show about I thought you know I'm going to do what I'm thinking about I. Don't WanNa, do it about Comma Harris or something like that I'm not. Sure. What I could get out of that I wanNA do me and so I'm gonNA share with you some stuff about the always fascinating dialect of American English black. English. It's called by academics usually. African American vernacular English but I have a hard time saying that so we're just going to call it black English and we're GONNA, look at it from various angles that I have been sitting around laying around still in semi quarantine these days and one of the things is. GonNa be the lost. Am That's what my papers about, and this is something that I've brought up on this show before, and that is the question as to whether actual black. American people ever as linguists call it over generalized an in two persons and numbers beyond where it would go and standard English and so for example, I'll tell you I am a person but in characters of black speech back in the day, the idea was that black people used am with all. Pronouns, and so you am this he am that we and the other thing that's something associated with minstrel shows and comic strips, and you would think you would quite reasonably think that that's something that white performers made up as a way of making fun of black people. That's what I thought for a very long time. But after a while various indications seem to suggest to me that actually wait a minute black people did once us am in a different way than mainstream. English does, and of course, it wasn't all black people but there have always been different ways of speaking even here in America and it seemed to me that well, you know as I'm always telling all of you language always changes and black English is no exception and so it seemed to me maybe actually the minstrels overdid it they were characterizing but maybe there was that different usage of an because all these things seemed indicated and in a show that I did. Probably back in about nineteen forty seven remember when I used to be sponsored by kraft macaroni and cheese way back. Then I said that one evidence of this is that there are vernacular British dialects. The US am in just that way you am we am the black country in Britain is sometimes called the people who are the Yam yams and what they mean by that is that they say you am saw gave you some evidence of that but that was that was. Back right after the Second World War and so what about newer evidence? Well, first of all, what do I mean by this as you might call it over generalized am well, here is one of the latest examples of it in pop culture. This is a highly insignificant. Hollywood. Cartoon from the studio that gave us such indelible characterizations as Casper, the friendly ghost and Herman and Catnip who were about the closest thing in real life to itchy and scratchy on the simpsons in. Any case, one of their other indelible characters was buzzy the Crow Buzzy. The Crow was supposed to clearly supposed to be this this black American little character remember the Dumbo crows while Buzzy was an extension of that, and so buzzy uses reflections of the old minstrel dialect. This is a cartoon called no IFS ands or buts, but spelled with two t's it's about smoking and this is what buzzy says about a cat who seems to have a smoking addiction listened closely. Tobacco smoking. To know. That Cat am Am Can am smokin fiend. Okay. So that's the character. But what's interesting is how often you see black American people depicted as speaking that way in many sources that you might think of authoritative and I have something even better than this is going to build up to a big fine. We're we're circling in. We're we're about to find the real thing but some other stuff. That I've found. So for example, there is a novel written by a Black Man, very conscious as we used to say black man eighteen, ninety, nine it's called imperium in Imperio, and the guy's name is Sutton griggs and for whatever it's worth his father was a Georgia slave. So Sutton griggs eighteen nine, he's post emancipation but he would have heard authentic black speech, the speech of. People who were denied education and what's interesting is that in one of his novels he is writing in very serious vain. We would today call him a black nationalist and he has seen where there's a black mother who is being humiliated by a racist white schoolteacher and she's trying to present her child and defend her child and what she says, and this is a black. Writer of black nationalist stamp who grew up with a father who had been at slave and not in New York City but in Georgia so we're talking about wear black English really arose and I WANNA say throws but that's not the were because it's thrived and so he has the mother saying about her child her son, his name and Belton Piedmont arteries, granddaddy arteries after so. Not His name is built in Piedmont his name and Belton Piedmont and she's a character of dignity. His name in Belton Piedmont not is built in Piedmont am. Arteries. granddaddy. What's Ardour ardor is after and shows how authentic this depiction of speech is in that we know that not only black people but also again regional vernacular speaking British people used arter and explains that problem with Jack and Jill. So Jack and Jill went up the hill to get a pail of water jack fell down and broke his Crown Jill. Came Tumbling after what the Hell is. That is that the best they can do of course, not it was Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling out. After, because, after can become after. After that is the way many people in for example, Yorkshire still say after October it's dialectal after and so they're always many people who said after and he came here and often they were either slave owners or they worked alongside slaves and so early biking, which has
Pit of Serpents
"Welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Land and dime Joe McCormack and I'm so excited because today we're diving the snake bit. That's right. not slashes snake pit. We're discussing before we started recording the show but this idea of a pit of snakes, the sort of a place you might want to drop a a doomed hero or a Damsel in distress that sort of thing right and I think the great place to start here is by discussing. A. Sort. Of Snake pit. Very much a snake pit that we encounter in raiders of the lost Ark, film that we've, we spent a lot of time talking about on the show we did we did a couple of episodes on the Ark of the Covenant that I encourage everyone to everyone to go back and listen to where we spin off. We also frequently refer back to raiders for examples of things that raiders does that refers to. Various qualities of the arc in ancient traditions. I've just thinking back on those Ark of the covenant episodes because I remember we talked about this one professor from the. Nineteen twenties or thirties who had this crank theory that the Ark of the Covenant was a real historical artifact and it was a giant electrical capacitor yes. Yeah. That was pretty good. Yeah. But what I was laughing at when you were talking, I'm sorry if I sort of interrupted but I was laughing the fact that you called the pit in Raiders, a sword of snake pit. I mean, it's definitely a snake pit don't beat around the Bush here. It's very much a snake bit it. It is an amazing and really game changing one of the many amazing engaging sequences in the film. It is the well of souls sequence now to refresh everybody. First of all the well of souls is an actual place. It's a partially manmade cave located inside the foundation stone. Under the Dome of the Rock Shrine in Jerusalem. The name itself pit of souls well of souls stems from medieval Islamic legend in this where the the spirits of the dead or supposedly awaiting judgment. Day. But that it has nothing or very little to do with the well of souls that we encounter in raiders of the lost Ark. In raiders, the well of souls, and this is straight from the Indiana Jones Wicky is quote part of a temple built within the ancient city of tennis where the Ark of the covenant was placed after Farrow she sacked stole it from Jerusalem again, that is entirely within the context of the Indiana Jones world don't confuse that with actual history right now there is no indication that there's an actual pit of snakes in any archaeological site in ancient Egypt. Right but it makes for a great scene because of course, we remember what happens is that. Indiana Jones and his cohorts discovered that Oh. This is the actual resting place of the Ark of the Nazis are off their digging in the wrong spot. So they open it up, and of course, they immediately see it full of snakes. He hates snakes, they lower him down. Anyway they go. His friend who is it Sala. Sala. Yeah. Solid goes down with them. They they crank the the arc up in. That's win Belloc and the Nazi show up they steal the Ark and just for sheer meanness, they throw Marian down there into the pit with him in an a seal inside with a bazillion snakes
Musicians: Kassia of Constantinople
"Today's musician was one of the only known women to have composed music during the medieval period she was one of the first medieval composers whose work survives to present day and can be understood and performed by modern musicians. A brilliant composer poet and him Niagara for her work is still performed regularly in the Orthodox Church, which includes twenty three of her hymns in its liturgy. Please welcome casio of Constantinople. Casio was born around the year eighty, five and Constantinople to a wealthy family of some influence. We know little about her early life. What we do know is that she was considered an exceptionally beautiful and brilliant young woman? Casio was first recorded by Byzantine historians as taking part in what was known as the bride show. This was an event at which Byzantine emperors a royalty would choose a wife from amongst the most eligible women in the empire giving the winning participant Golden Apple as a token of victory. The bride show that Casio attended thrown for the young soon to be emperor theophilus who was immediately captivated by Casio when Theophilus approached Cassiopeia, he stated that through a woman came forth the baser things to which casio quickly replied and through a woman came forth the better things. The office was so taken aback by Cassius biting rebuke that he rejected her in favor of another woman the Adora after losing her chance to become empress of Byzantium Cassius founded an Abbey Eight, forty three right outside of Constantinople and served as its first abbess. Many historians have suggested the Cassius move into monastic life was a response to her rejection from the office. But some modern scholars have revisited that assumption. And now believe that it was likely a reflection of the intense religious fervor of the day combined with Cassius desire to have access to the books and centers of learning that were part and parcel of Byzantine religious. Life. Over the subsequent two decades living at the monastery Cassius spent significant writing spiritual poetry and him no music to accompany her poems. Though it's unclear where she learned musical composition, she wrote nearly two hundred and fifty hymns over her lifetime. Fifty of those, him still survive twenty three of which continue to be included even today in the liturgy of the Orthodox Church? Casio also wrote nearly eight hundred epigrams, many of which are examples of nomex verse. Cassius, most famous him WHO's the him? CASSIA is traditionally chanted on holy Wednesday in Orthodox churches around the world. It's considered one of the hardest Byzantine chance to perform because it requires an incredibly wide vocal range. Legend has it that the Emperor Theophilus years later wishing to see Casio one more time went to the monastery but was met by her empty cell supposedly, she was actually hiding in her closet when he saw the him of Cassie on her table halfway finished the office added one line of his own. The story goes that Casio chose to keep it in his honor and it remains in the him today. While Theophilus may have maintained affection for Cassiopeia that didn't stop him from persecuting her. The office was a fierce iconoclast meaning that he completely rejected the use or veneration religious icons iconography in the Byzantine. Casio on the other hand was a defender of the use of icons for her perceived insolence. Casio was whipped with a lash. Still. She refused to change her mind saying I hate silence when it is time to speak. Towards the end of her life, Casio. Left the Abbey and traveled to Italy for a brief period before eventually settling on the island of Casio's in. Greece. She died there sometime between eight, sixty, seven, and eight ninety. Following her death Casio was canonized by the Orthodox. Church. As Saint Cassini also known as Cassini the him NOG
The Plague of Justinian I
"Welcome back to another episode of five minutes in Church history. On this episode, we're talking about a very dark moment in church history and history the plague of Justinian. The first first let's talk about just in the first he was born in four eighty seven. He came to be Roman emperor in five, twenty seven and he reigned until his death in five sixty three at the time of becoming Roman emperor the barbarian tribes controlled much of what was the Roman Empire The ostrogoths controlled Rome in the boot of Italy that extends down into the Mediterranean Sea the visigoths controlled Spain, the vandals controlled what was formerly North Africa the Roman empire was a fraction and a mere shadow of its former self just Indian ruled from capital at Constantinople. He was determined to bring back the glory that once was the Roman Empire. To do so he would need to launch military campaigns to the east into the Iberian Peninsula to the south and the vandals to the West and the ostrogoths into the north. He had to launch military campaign literally in every direction. And he was very successful after a decade or so of military campaigns warfare. Then in five forty, two Justin faced a new invisible enemy. Well, we'll get to that in a moment first a few more points on just in the first, he is known as giving us the Codex Justinian us it's also sometimes called the Corpus juris civilised. This is the body of civil law. Someone took the time to count it. It's somewhere around the neighborhood one million words. It was a massive rule of law to govern the Roman Empire contains laws on criminal and civil matters on trade, but it also controls laws regarding heresy and Orthodoxy, and even laws regulating paganism. Another thing about just in the first is that he is the creator of the Huggy Sophia he was not the architect though he had significant conversations with the architect and was very influential in the plans but it was under his watch that the Haganah Sophie was built from five, thirty, two to five, thirty seven the old basilica had fallen during riots in that city and just in use the occasion to build what was the biggest church the Roman Empire ever saw its length was two, hundred, sixty, nine feet. Its width was two hundred and forty feet and extended a height of one hundred and eighty feet. It was a massive structure. The HAGIA Sofia. Well, that's just any in the first. Now, briefly on his plague in five, forty to the bubonic plague broke out. This is the your cineas pestis. What came to be known as the black plague. It would come again in the thirteen hundreds and it would manifest throughout the Middle Ages and the time of the reformation. Back in five, forty, two, it is believed to have started in Egypt. This plague then carried on merchant ships too many nations and to three continents. Africa Europe Asia it is credited as the first pandemic in recorded history. It brought all of the efforts of Justinian one to a stop it ended the military campaigns devastated the economy. It ended up killing millions at its height. It would take five thousand lives a day in the city of Constantinople alone. Even. Just any in the first contract. Did it. But he survives one of the stories from that time PRA copious notes of the effect of the plague on the people it caused them to shake off the unrighteousness of their daily lives and practice the duties of religion with diligence but sadly, he also notes. That as soon as they were rid of the disease, they went right back to their old ways. Well, that's just any in the first, and that's the justinian plague five, forty two
The Interior World
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe. McCormick, and today we're going to be taking a look at interior space. Get Era Two thousand twenty brings to mind the old curse. May You live in interesting times and one of the factors here has, of course, been the corona virus cove in nineteen pandemic and in an effort to fight the spread of the illness, save lives and prevent overwhelming are hospitals. We've made a lot of changes to our lives and these range from the simple such as just wearing a mask when you're out in public and you can't so full. Distance from people to the harder choices about employment, and in life choices, we've all been social distancing and stay at home orders teleworking in quarantine have meant that we've all been spending a lot more time at home. Now depending on your home, this could mean a lot of things, but we want to explore what this means from a biological standpoint for the most part here. Now, make no mistake spending more time at home has absolutely been the right move. But just as it's forced you to focus more on, say that weird stain on your ceiling we wanted to focus on the other often unseen aspects of life in home right much the same way that being say on a Spanish galleon out in the middle of the ocean might have made you pay much more attention to the biology and behavior of of ship rats than you ever would have otherwise I. Think being at home more and more is forcing all of us to Turner is and maybe our microscopes and magnifying glasses to the corners and the cornices and the showerheads and the drain traps and all of the wonderful places in our house where life dwells. we're going to really get into the difference really between the natural world outside of our homes in the unnatural world inside and getting into some ideas about how how we could perhaps enable our interior world to be a little more on the natural side of things. But. Before we get into all that, I wanted to take a moment here to discuss the history of houses in general, you know just to get into the concept of what a house is. Our first and most important interior artificial environment. So you can certainly look at a home as an artificial cave to a certain extent indeed, we have lots of early evidence that early hominids sought out shelter in caves in the same way that many other animals do these can shelter one against the elements and against predators and as recently as one hundred, thirty thousand years ago cave-dwellers were already augmenting these natural interior environments with things like rough stone walls using timbers so So you know, even one, hundred, thirty, thousand years ago we were taking naturally occurring interior spaces and. A little less natural. And of course, on top of just the shelter caves can provide. It also seems that caves had a strong sacred meaning too many of these prehistoric peoples those might be important, but ultimately, proximity to water is far more important thus as Kate Spin Brian fagin point out in. In the section of the seventy grade inventions of the ancient world about homes, most early hominids lived out in the open near streams and lakes built temporary structures, and most of this has been lost a time. But some of the earliest evidence of potential structures for homes goes back a one point seven, two point seven, million years ago with Homo Erectus sites in southern Africa, and these were potentially contemporary with the domestication of fire. The have been temporary tents, but they still would have been artificial interior environments. Now, more secure evidence comes from the Ukraine roughly forty four thousand years ago the the mammoth bone structures from mullet ova with recently see us on the show actually yeah we did talknet these that would have been structures in one of the northernmost habitable regions of the earth the time because this was during a time of glacial. Advance where the polar ice caps from the north were coming deep down into Europe and Asia, and and so this would have been far far north way up among the ice and for some reason, humans were building these structures out of the bones of mammoth and we don't know that there are still things. We don't know about those structures like how how consistently they were inhabited and for how long and so forth. Right? Now beyond this, the history of human homes is is largely dictated by local resources and local climate. Long process of trial and error ends up leading to the development of regional and cultural building forums construction methods. Before nine thousand B C e we see evidence of clay houses and Palestine what is today Palestine and before seven thousand BC we see rectangular dwellings in Anatolia. But but a home is far more than just a shelter. As the authors here point out houses became key to social structure as well.
A Song For Peace
"This is the story of a song that is in a way the story of this country in the spring of Nineteen, sixty-nine at a sidewalk cafe on Richmond Street tucked in from the corner of Dizengoff. Street in Tel Aviv a twenty four year old poet named Yakov or Janka wrote Blit met a twenty five year old musician and arranger named yet year Rosenbloom and the two men became friends the cafe was called California and the. Place, itself said something about the people who made a habit of spending their days especially, their long nights there. The first thing to know about Cafe California is what it wasn't just one hundred and twenty five meters up Dizengoff was a legendary Bohemian cafe called carseat. It had been in operation since nineteen, thirty five, and since then it was the place where you can find some of Jewish palestines and then Israel's greatest poets and writers. On Alterman and Lebron's Sean Ski. Lay. Goldberg. Alexander Penn great writers who had been young and who grew old drinking coffee in the afternoon and vodka in Iraq at night at the simple spare tables of cassette alongside these luminaries in the nineteen sixties. New Generation staked claims at the table, the actor or. The singer Oregon Stein the architect Yaakov wreck there and many others cafe California was not seat from its vantage half of long block away even the young people at seat where old carseat was yesterday's Bohemia California was today's Cafe California was founded in one, thousand, nine, hundred, thousand, nine by a man named Ab Netanyahu who was only thirty two. Then that had lived a good deal of life. Netanyahu was born in nineteen twenty seven in the southwest corner of what is now Iran in a place called Abedin on the Persian Gulf just. Across the border from Bosra not far from Kuwait at six he was sent to board at Saint. Mary's a Jesuit School in Mumbai where you had an aunt, his parents abandoned. Persia. For India when he was twelve at sixteen and Nineteen, forty three, he lied about his age and joined the Royal Indo British Air Force in time after he trained to watch the Second World War wind down at twenty one he came to fight in Israel's war of independence and never left taking a job as an El Al pilot when he was decommissioned. It was with a few restless L. Buddies that Netanyahu opened cafe. California soon, it was filled with the city's young wannabe writers, directors and poets the people most eager to knock from their sinecures the city's old writers, directors, and poets who argued and held forth at carseat. Ab Thanh was a magnet for Bohemians and he came alive when he was with Bohemians, their company produced in him at once a sense of satisfaction. He had found his people but also a sense of restlessness eighty, nine ton was in constant search of his next Gig in nineteen sixty five he ran for Knesset advice of a friend who worked in PR he pledged that if he was elected, he would fly to Egypt to meet with General Nasser to seek peace after he failed to win a seat in parliament, he anyway bought a nineteen twenty seven steer. Men by playing that, he named piece one on February twenty, eighth nineteen, sixty six, he took off and flying low to avoid Israeli radars he landed in Port Saieed the Egyptians sent him back the next day Nassar had refused to see him back home a retired David Ben Gurion told reporters that not tons trip was an event of moral and political importance and quote pope. Pious gave him a medal of peace and Robert Kennedy and Bertrand Russell sought out his company not much later the notion took hold of Natanz, that music held the key to altering. Israeli. In the summer of Nineteen Sixty Nine AB NATANZ bought a Dutch cargo ship named MVP SEATO MVP stands for motor vessel and he rechristened it the MVP piece from Holland he sailed to New York to raise money and set up a shipboard radio station. His plan was to anchor in the Mediterranean outside territorial waters of Egypt and Israel and broadcast songs of peace that might open the minds of Israelis any. Alike his sojourn to New York stretched biblically three years would pass before he returned with ship in good repair with mixers, turntables, ABC cartridge machines, reel to reel tape machines, and fifty kilowatt transmitter to help not on- by what he needed John. Lennon. And Yoko Ono signed hundreds of posters of the two of them in bed in Amsterdam their famous bet in which not on sold to raise money for audio equipment. John Lennon also offered not time yet. Rolls. Royce grads to sell at auction, but the practical impediments of shipping the grand car stymied the business, the carpenters, Johnny Mathis and other musicians recorded for non promotional clips in praise of peace. Not an idea was that new music might open minds in Israel Egypt. The station eventually began to broadcast in nineteen seventy-three as the voice of peace
The History Of The Ping-Pong Video Game
"June one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty, seven, Nashua New Hampshire. It's four months since bill, Harrison secret meeting with Ralph Baer and today they're finally unveiling their prototype game console to the company's top brass. Their TV game device isn't much to look at it's an aluminum box the size of a briefcase with a bunch of dials and switches poking out of the top senior executives and the board of directors take seats at the conference table from the head of the table. The company's stony-faced founder Roydon Sanders Surveys, the room his gaze settles on bear across the table. Every time bear pushes up his glasses sweat makes him slip back down again. Bear I. Hear you've been fooling around with some TV gadgetry, some kind of toy. It. Yes. Sir. That's correct. Well, let me be clear. I'm not sure I'm happy with people making toys on my dime. So whatever this thing is it better be good. They're tries to smile it comes out as a grimace with that Harrison switches on the TV set. Okay we're ready. Bear takes a deep breath and starts his presentation. This is the TV game unit. It can play seven different games. You select a game by turning this dial and to to explain the Games, I prerecorded instructions on an audio cassette, and maybe this cassette could come with the device to teach families how to use it. Bear pushes his glasses backup knows deep down he knows he's invented something groundbreaking but that doesn't change the fact that he's pitching a toy to one of America's top military contractors, and now that the presentation started, there's no turning back. Bear turns the dial on the box to lonely squares appear on the screen. One is white. The other red bear presses play on the cassette. Please I have your attention. The first game are chess game. Please fasten the chessboard overlay. There takes out of transparent plastic sheet with a chessboard design and places it over the TV screen. Thanks to the static on the screen. The plastic sheets sticks with the overlay attached. Now looks as though the two squares on the screen are pieces on a chessboard bears prerecorded tape. Rolls. On. The game is played by two players joysticks. The object of this game is to reach the opponents position moving one square at a time. Please shut me off. Bear stops the cassette and pick up a joystick. The executive stare is bare and Harrison Guide their onscreen squares around the chessboard. The. Room disconcertingly quiet. The TV game unit can't do sound one board members stifles a yawn. Bear decides he'd better move onto the next game he whips the chessboard. Screen pushes up his glasses and restarts the audio cassette. Now, for a little more action, let's have a steeplechase one will be the hunter. One will be the Fox shut me off. please. Barron Harrison Start Moving two squares around the otherwise empty screen the moment. Harrison Square catches bear square the game restarts. There's no scoring the TV game. Unit camp keep scores. When executive fiddles with tie some board members cover their size with their hands others don't bother the presentation is tanking fast. But then Harrison pulls out a toy rifle. The executive sit up Harrison grins don't worry folks at isn't loaded. It's just a light gun. There turns the game selection switch a large white square appears on a screen and starts roaming around at random bear presses play on the tape. We're are going to test your accuracy as a marksman. We guarantee if you can shoot straight with this rifle, you can shoot straight with anything. There's no way of predicting just where the target is going to be. Now, let's see if you can hit. The target shooting game immediately changes the mood among the executives. Maybe there could be a military application for bears toy after all soon, the suited executives are lining up to take potshots at the onscreen. Target. After the demonstration Bayern. Harrison stand in silence as the sanders associates executives confer I don't think the rightful gain will cut it for military training needs a lot more work if it's going to do that I agree agree but still it was fun. Wasn't it sure but we're not a toy company. Eventually. All eyes. Settle on Roydon Sanders Sanders strokes is mustache and then looks at bear This is interesting. Not sure what we can do with this thing, but I wanna see where it leads but fair next time I want to see something we can sell or license. Got It. Bear manages a smile. His project is still alive for now.
Ice Like Stone
"Welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick and we're going to be talking about materials today but this is a really fun materials episode that will shatter like glass in our hands or will it I? Guess. It's a big question mark. Yeah we'RE GONNA be talking a lot about ice, but a lot of exciting stuff about is you're gonNA learn some new things about ice I think and you're also going to think A bit more deeply about what can be done and also. Perhaps cannot or should not be done with ice. So if you've read any of George are Martin's a song of ice and fire. If you've read that saga or if you've viewed the TV adaptation, a game of thrones, you're well acquainted with the wall but to reacquaint everybody, this is a fantasy world that's day stunt sort of a medieval European model, and in the far north, you have this massive three, hundred mile long seven, hundred foot tall wall of ice that we're told has stood there for eight thousand years is a barrier against the peoples and the supernatural horrors of the far north. Yeah. It's basically. HADRIAN's wall except much bigger and made of magic. Yes. Yeah. We're told it was built by brandon the builder with the aid of giants and the magical children of the forest were definitely to understand that there is actual magic in its construction. But also there's this idea that brandon was a master engineer that he's in the vein of these various engineering cultural heroes that you see in various cultures. But of course, the the real up feature that makes this while unique is that it is built out of ice not out of stone but out of frozen water. Yes it is a wall of ice so. Ignoring the magic for a second here. It sounds like a great plan, right? I. Mean Humans have been known to make shelters out of ice glaciers and snow has served as natural barriers to travel. So why wouldn't a it'd be ideal to construct this far northern barrier which is going to be dealing with you know with far northern climate why not build it out of ice good. Question is a block of ice not just as good as stone brick. Yeah. So I, I was looking around about this and Fortunately. There is already a great book out there that dives into this very question it sidled fire ice and physics the science of game of thrones by Rebecca Thompson, PhD A physicist, and author of the popular of Spectra Series of Comic Books About Physics and I should also note that Sean Carroll wrote the Intro Cool. So she first of all, this is just a really fun book. If you if if you're interested in game of thrones and science I encourage you to pick it up I love books like this. One about Dune. I I've been eyeing one about star wars. But she goes through various aspects of the books and the world of West rose in breaks about scientifically Indus-. So in a very engaging humorous but also West rose loving style. So, there's there's one section there where she tackles the wall and she points out that ultimately this question would an ice while work is a lot more complex than you might think. So for starters, there's not just one type of Ice Crystal. There are seventeen types of crystalline is that we know of plus there are three different types of amorphous ice and three hundred. Theoretically she says there might be as many as three hundred different phases of ice. Depending on some of the the research out there