Listen to the latest news about groundbreaking documentaries, interviews with renowned directors and learn about the latest releases from audio broadcasts aired on leading talk radio shows and premium podcasts.
Cree author David A. Robertson on writing everything from graphic novels to a memoir
"I want to go to my trap line one last time he says. I cannot breathe. I know he hasn't been to his trap line for almost seven decades. We've been on a journey as father and son for thirty years, and for the first time, it feels like we've found our destination. And I think maybe we've been headed there all this time. Whatever choose exists between us. The end of our journeys in front of us. That's David Robertson reading from Blackwater, family legacy and blood memory. One of three books he has coming out this fall. To say, he's prolific is a bit of an understatement. The cree writer based in Winnipeg started writing in two thousand and nine and has already published more than twenty titles from the Governor General Award Winning Picture Book when we were alone to his graphic novel series the reckoner to his first novel, the evolution of Alice published in two thousand fourteen it seems like he can write in any genre for any age group. David Robertson is my guest on the show today. Thanks so much for being here, David All. Thanks for having me. It's a pleasure. So this month you published your most personal book to date a memoir called Blackwater family legacy and blood memory, which we just heard a bit from. And it chronicles the story of Your Dad's returned to the family trap line Norway House creed nation in northern. Manitoba. So first off most people wait until they're a lot older to write a memoir So why did you want to write now? Yeah. That's a great question and there's there's probably a bunch that goes into that answer. One of them is that you know I've been talking about my dad and I for the last eleven years ever since I was a published writer I found that when I was public speaking all of my talk somehow came back to my father and I and and he's played such a big role in. My own development my understanding of you know who I am as cree person. There's one time I was giving this lecture at University of Manitoba couple years ago where I was the same thing talking about my life in my father and our relationship, and then a professor came up to me after and said, you really have to write this down and so. Money as a writer I'd never thought about writing actually my own story and that really kind of jog something me were. I decided that that was something I. needed to do. The other part of it is that you know my father at the time was declining I mean he was still himself and he was still my dad but he we knew that our time with him a short it was getting shorter and I really wanted to start working on this because it was something I always wanted to do I wanted. To document his life and and our relationship the teachings he gave me for myself and for my family and so all of this kind of came together and made me feel this agency to write the story now, and certainly when we went to the trap line together two years ago, it felt like the framing for the story had happened because I think it was where we were journeying to. All these years together. That's that's where we were going to and so when we got there, it felt like the right time to document everything that had happened between us and in our own lives and teams like such a special trip to be able to go on. Yeah I mean it was I I. Don't know if I could even put it into words. I. Tried my best in the book but it was blackberries in the title of the book and I really did feel that blood member was something that played a big role into why Blackwater why this trap line my dad grew up on felt home to me as soon as I stepped off the boat onto the land. I just felt like I'd come home and I, know that watching dad, you know amble up the inclined towards this big boulder in the middle of this clearing I know he felt like he was home to it was incredibly emotional intensity emotional moment for us and it turned out that it was the only time it could have happened because you know dad passed away just this past December and it made me even more grateful for spending that time with him and being able to write. About that experience through his words in my own and did you learn anything you know anything about yourself while writing a memoir I know that you know when you when you go into material like this, you sort of have to dig back in sort of excavate your own life and sort of reexamine things maybe in a new perspective did you learn anything about yourself? Yeah. I think anytime you revisit your past and learn more about the people who came before you. You're inevitably going to learn more about who you. Are you know I've always said and I've learned from my dad, the process of you know understanding ourselves and who we are that journey starts well, before we were born starts with understanding who came before you and know certainly in this book, it talks about my grandmother and my dad and their lives before I was born and my dad's after I was born and all of that plays into forming a sense of identity. It helps to you to understand more about yourself and there's things in even researching this book that. I learned that kind of. Forced me to re contextualize my life in my identity. No. When I was a kid I, always believed that my parents drew grew up intentionally raising me to be non indigenous to protect me from. You know what they felt would have experienced growing up in the city in. Winnipeg. As a cre- kid and in the process of researching this book and a lot of that research was just sitting down with my dad spending hours with him talking he said that's not true. I. I never wanted to tell you what it meant to be original. But I never told you that I didn't want you to be my goal was to model that for you. But to give you the tools that you need to figure out for yourself and one of the things that always sticks with me as you said, how to teach you how to be crea- you are cre-. So nothing I can say can make you more or less cre-. Your journey is defined what that means. For Self and his role was to kind of guide me in a way to that understanding and I think he did that.
The Suitcase Murder
"My name is Meghan Sacks criminologist at Fairleigh Dickinson University. In simplest terms criminology is the scientific study of what causes crime and how the criminal justice system. Response. To crime. Ridden about twenty, five true crime books over the years and I think many maguire is perhaps one of the most interesting ones and baffling. This is Melanie. McGuire arrested today minutes after dropping offer children in daycare. Melanie, McGuire a New Jersey nurse was accused of killing her husband cutting up his body and throwing it into the Chesapeake Bay. In two thousand, seven, what was being called? The suitcase murder trial was generating an enormous amount of media attention, not just in New Jersey, but all across the country three bazaar discoveries, three separate suitcases, all containing human remains the woman who is on trial for her very life. She says the real truth behind the crime has never been revealed with no history of violence and no apparent motive for murder. Could she really have done it? She was this beautiful young nurse and they were the seemingly normal middle class couple and the murder happened in such a grisly way. The idea that this beautiful nurse could have actually killed her husband and then cut him up is just incredible. Of course, they were salacious aspects. Maguire is a nurse and prosecutors say she had an affair with a doctor. She didn't fit the profile I. Guess of a murderer over the years and colleagues of ours have come to me and said, you know Melanie McGuire proclaims her innocence and to tell her story I started thinking Oh maybe there is a little more to this case than what you see on the surface and then the idea podcast came up and I was all in on direct appeal examined the murder conviction of Melanie, McGuire him following a highly publicized trial looking at the evidence that was presented and the evidence that may have seemed insignificant at the time before own conclusion about Melanie's guilt. We hear at ABC have our own history with the Melanie. McGuire case back in two thousand, seven ABC's Cynthia McFadden had the first on camera interview at the mother of two on trial for murdering her husband. Who was the Melanie? McGuire you hope to jury. knows. The one who tried to take care of everybody. Who didn't make the smartest decisions but admitted to those mistakes? To the people she trusted most. But. Did Not admit what what she's acute stuff. I have been incarcerated for twelve and a half going on thirteen years now. Do. You still insist that you're innocent. Absolutely. You're sitting here. A wrongfully convicted person. Correct. Absolutely and what have those years spend like? I tell people. It's not as bad as you think in some ways and it's so much worse than I could ever articulate in others. After all these years I. Still feel her I still feel bothered. I still feel like how could somebody think? That I did that. This whole saga begins on May. Fifth two thousand four with an odd discovery in Virginia Beach. Early morning a couple of fishermen and the kids are out on a boat by the Chesapeake Bay. Me and my friend Don Connors was going to go out fishing and we both had days off D. or Don. We Call Them D. said, keep his kids out of school. We're GONNA take him fishing. Everybody was excited. We went right out this bridge here. and to keep on going you run right in the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel. In the Chesapeake Bay Bridge tunnel is seventeen and a half miles long. It really is quite astonishing. It connects the eastern shore of Virginia to Virginia Beach has two tunnels, two shipping channels, and then once you get on the other side, you go North into Maryland Delaware New Jersey.
Documentary Explores Emancipating From Foster Care System
"Some some point, point, older older kids kids in in foster foster care care become unadoptable. There are three factors at play. How the foster care system seize the child, how potential parents see the child and what the child wants in a new documentary called UN Adopted No Elena interviews, kids who were in this position. It's a position that he was in. Not that long ago. In one scene, and I asked his lawyer when his caseworker changed his status to long term foster care. Long term Foster cares with the system cause it when they stop trying to get two adopted Instead, the plan is that your age out of the system this looks like 2007 is when it moved over from a plant of adoption. Think you might have been 11. Yeah, you were 11 at that point. It means I was in Six rained on, says one reason older foster kids don't get adopted is that they come with some baggage really, or perceived its no surprise that every team comes with another teen angst and all of the Joys of being a team. But like also, I think most families don't want like this kid is forever gonna want to know about his biological family or her biological family, you know? And I think it could be a little bit intimidating, or it could seem as if That family is competing. I think most people don't want to find out or they don't possibly want to get hurt. In the documentary. We also meet a teenage girl named Sequoyah, who is incredibly honest about how badly she wants to be adopted. And at one point, she says, something so striking trying to be a part of their family the first few months. Was really hard because I had to figure out how they worked. Spoke. Let their minutes were how to talk to then this's a teenage girl who You would expect to be the one who has moods herself that adults have to get used to. And instead, she's saying I need to get used to their moods. The idea that teenagers view adoptive parents as people they have to impress. There is also something really telling and really sad about that, too. I think for Sequoia. Like so many other foster you there at emotional crossroads and They're confronted with what may be the most important decision of their lives, whether to reunify with their biological family of possible which in her case is not Or opt into extended care. Or the third choice to pursue a forever family. And she is very keen on getting a forever family. She, at one point says she does not even know if her mother is alive. And if she is, Sequoia says, Well, good for her. If she's not. I wouldn't be surprised. Um How frequent isn't for kids in the foster care system to be so alienated from their parents that their attitude is? I don't know if this person is alive or dead. I don't want them to be dead. But if they are okay. The foster care system definitely does. Desensitize people. You know, in another NPR story I did I mentioned there's like little to no emotion. Kids often mirror their role models. And if you have role models, a k a. The social workers and judges, lawyers, etcetera being so gray with them then You know you're going to get the same results. You mentioned this NPR story that you did, for all things considered a few years ago, an award winning story in which you tape part of your own courtroom hearing and the thing that stood out to me. Maybe because my name is Noel is that the judge who had dealt with your case for a while called, you know. And you corrected her and said, Actually, it's no well and then you note. The frustration of my fate is in this judge's hands, and she doesn't even know how to pronounce my name or has forgotten how to pronounce me. Yeah, um I thought that was so shocking because she's been on my case for so long, you know, and she has My brother on her caseload as well. So my name you know, would bleed into his case file. So for something so simple as a name. Is really bad. And Ms Schwartz, if you're listening, I think we should have a sit down, talk and reflect from that because I think simple things like that can get corrected and they should be. There seems to be a push. To instead of taking Children away from their parents and putting them in foster care to leave them with their parents if they're not in immediate danger and helped the parents improve. You at the end of the documentary make clear that you are in touch with your biological family and seem happy about that. You also have nothing ill or bad to say about the foster family with whom you spent your older years. You're older, teenage years. Do you wish that you had been left with your biological family and that they had gotten support? Or do you think it was the right move to take you out of their care and put you into foster care? I shouldn't be a CZ well off a Zai am and I don't know if that's the survivor's guilt talking. But I've had to endure so much. And I don't You know, Foster care is supposed to be temporary, and it wasn't temporary. I was bouncing home to home. I was in multiple families, and it did take an emotional toll. I'm not going to say that it didn't I just think I had The willpower to, you know, push through and I still don't know. What the answer would be, But I would say, you know, I don't want to say this because I don't want it. Let the system win. Think they won, you know, but I would rather not have gotten adopted or reunify with my biological family because I did that on my own terms. I reunified with my bio family. I accepted my Foster family as my chosen family. But I did that, not the system. So I don't want to say one way or the other and think the system one because they didn't They have a bigger job to do. Noel and Naya. He's the co producer of the new documentary UN Adopted, which is now on the arts YouTube channel.
Celebrating Indigenous filmmakers at TIFF
"For people who aren't familiar with Thomas King's book the inconvenient Indian, how do you describe it? It's a difficult book to describe because Thomas covers so much ground but really it's the history of colonization in North America but told through his lens so he uses humor I. It's funny. He says to me he always disarms people with his humor, and then he pulls out the knife and. I really feel that that expresses the book in the best way because there can be a moment where you're just running along listening to historian. He's a fantastic storyteller, and then you're laughing and next thing you know it's a Gut Punch and I feel that capture the spirit of indigenous people we go through a lot of things and it can be really tough but we always have the ability to laugh at it and we have such a good sense of. Humor despite some of the atrocities we end up living in our lives and I feel like, Thomas Really encapsulates Ivan this book and do you remember when you first picked up the book and read it and you know what impact it had on you I do I read it around the time it first came out and it was not long after that that I ended up going to standing rock to document the occupation against the Dakota access pipeline there and I'd never thought about making the book into a film but when I was in standing rock, I saw a lot of those ideas that are in Thomas's. Enacted on the ground in the front lines and when I came back from standing rock. I guess that was when I really started to think about making it into a film and the book the inconvenient Indian it's pretty genre defying. It's you know unconventional in so many ways it blends history and humor and personal narrative from Thomas Kings perspective. How did you approach adapting all of those things from the book to the Big Screen? Yeah, it was actually very intimidating in the beginning when Jesse, Wendy and Stuart Henderson the producers of the film when they approached me to adopt the book. My initial reaction was I'm not a historian I'm not an academic I can't do this, and then on the publisher sent me an illustrated version of the book and those illustrations spanned everything from Thomas? King's own photographs in his travels to old posters from the original land settlement posters when candidate was trying to entice settlers to come here and occupy lands and I think that got me really thinking about the history that. Media has played in the misrepresentation of Dennis peoples in this country. One of my favorite moments in the film is a hunting scene, and early in the film, You bring in a clip from the nineteen twenty, two movie nuke of the North, and that movie represents the Innuendo as primitive but you show us a contemporary hunting scene So you kind of flip the script and Wayne. Can You? Can you tell us why? Was that important to show contemporary hunting nook of the north is an interesting film because when that was being recorded, it was considered one of the first feature documentaries and and it was recorded from Robert Flaherty who was asking people to hunt with spears, and when at the time they were actually hunting with rifles and so he was actually setting them back in time and this is where I think this. This perpetuates the stereotype that. People are stuck in the past where this nineteenth century representation of a dead Indiana's I use those words meaning the Thomas. King words from his book dead Indian or we're stuck with leathers and feathers, and we're a stereotypical romanticized version of ourselves but we exist in the now and many of our cultural practices and traditions are existing with us right now
Dream Boy And The Poison Fans
"By the time that Emily Fangs reporting this story in March, the controversy around this actor at already gotten so hot that many of his fans refused to talk to a reporter others asked to speak in ways that would not reveal their true identities. NPR, by the way has very strict standard on this, you have to reasonably expect harm to your person or livelihood, and they met the standard there been retributive attacks and death threats. But we're GONNA start our story before all that back when Xiaojun was getting more endorsements than almost any idol in China is twenty eight tall and thin with Pale skin big eyes and understand the role he played in Chinese pop culture. You can look to the TV ads that were scripted with his image in mind. Mike Emily showed me this ad for Esti Lipstick So it starts in this. Hotel lobby most is really warm. Golden Sojourn appears the top of the staircase. He looks down and sees one beautiful woman in the crowd. She looks quite unsure of herself. He, sees this woman. And he can tell you quickens his steps who walks down the staircase briskly and it looks like he's about to approach her. But instead he grabbed golden balloon and he sends it her way with a package attached. The balloon didn't inside is surprise and estee louder lipstick which puts on an all of a sudden. She has confidence she struts out and she takes position on stage in front of a microphone. And you sojourn the crowd, he begins to clap for her and everyone else begins to clap her. As the woman smiles. They're selling the image of him as someone who helps others and to as helper of beauty he's too good to be human. But he's always there helping others be their best selves. Really Shapes. Shenzhen's millions of fans. See Him looks very clean. Looks. Very decent. He looks very gentle. This is an we're calling by her initials is E. IMA passer. Yes life I have never seen someone look at it. Is. E is thirty years old married. and. She was about to become the mother when I talked to her. So she has not the typical style Jonathan? Savage John Fans are usually single women young teenagers, teenagers likely in middle school or high school is e says that. This kind of connector to her friends because they always have something to talk about show. Good looks. And also there is a another reason is because I feel when people are pursuing I'll say when they're Authorian cert- can kind of celebrity they must have fun something in the celebrity that way don't have our self. So is he describes herself as very frank, a very frank and outspoken person maybe even a little harsh and one of the things she ended these most in South Asia is his gentleness so that I feel that is something I want to learn from him because John is portrayed a sweet person. He also needs protection because that gentleness can be taken advantage of in his fans need to. Be the ones who stand up for him here is where China's Fan Culture and actually Asian Fan Culture in general it kind of veers away from even the most intense fan behavior in the West because a lot of fancy it as their job, even their responsibility, not just to admire their idol and to support him but to go so much further. So is he talks about how in these? Media groups, some of which will have hundreds of thousands of followers. Each there are something called a child Wa. So sopra topic, what's called Super Topic or Toha, and which some of the lead fans who devote hours a day to organizing this fans structure, we'll give orders to. Fans beneath them about what they need to achieve for that day. So today, we're all going to click on this one music video and watch it or today we're all going to buy products from this brand because they've signed an endorsement deal with children. Say the broadcaster from the Child Watt who say today when you to do this today when you to do that so you remember that Estee Lauder ad for lipstick according to Chinese media estee Lauder Botox, pitched show in two thousand eighteen sold out not only within the first day of their release but within the first. Hour. Totalling almost six million dollars in sales, and then back on the fan club sites, fans would celebrate what they saw as their success. It's IMMA fine. You want to support your idol by making here she gets the most brand endorsements and makes the most money on behalf of these companies. I get I get what Xiaojun gets out of this he gets. And success money what fans get out of making him. So successful by being particularly influential fan of Superfan you also get a lot of power and influence the majority of his fans are going to be. Young girls in their middle school or high school years. So in real life, they're not going to have a lot of power in Chinese society. But by being a part of this fan group, you become part of this very powerful commercial
Moo-Dunnit: How Beef Replaced Bison on the American Plainsand Plate
"Nearly, all the hamburgers in America today come from cows that spend at least part of their lives on the Great Plains that famous open range in the. American. West. So that is where we will go to start our story today to the American West before it was American before Europeans and their horses started showing up there in the late sixteen hundreds. So before there were cattle and before kind of United States had control of the planes in the. West you had a variety of American Indian policies, groups like the Comanche themselves essentially a very powerful empire across the West and they were hunting bison numbers for that time are kind of hard to come by. But it's estimated that there were about thirty to sixty million bison roaming through the middle of north. America. These are big grazing animals and what they can do is they can turn the abundant grasses of the West into animal flesh which then hunter's. Can Eat and so they become the foundation of the economy whenever I'm in the same spot as a cow I'm always kind of amazed at how big they are. But Bison is a heck of a lot bigger and faster. They can run about thirty five miles an hour faster than most horses, and they can pivot on both front and back hooves and literally turn on a dime. These are terrifying and dangerous creatures. It's not the kind of animal you'd. WanNa meet on foot and other key thing about them is that they're herd animals. So they gather at times massive herds, massive herds that would have represented a very appetizing dinner plus some warm and sturdy buffalo-hide imagine writing towards a herd of kind of terrifyingly huge bison if you're safely on horseback but how did native communities had them before horses very carefully so you could really only do it in the spring or summer when Bison gathered together to mate. You would do it on foot and you could work as a group, but it was difficult. You couldn't really do it fulltime. You could hunt by some kind of part time before the Horse, the planes really belong to the. Bison. But we now think of as plains tribes actually lived on the edges of the planes combining a little small-scale hunting with some farming. But once you had horses than well-coordinated hunters could hunt the animals very efficiently. The horses came with the Spanish. The native communities got a hold of some of those horses and horses quickly caught on they even changed the politics of the region, the communities that had more horsepower like the comanche kind of took over and they. Would kind of dominate everybody else and basically built these very successful empires empires that were built on Bison, hunting them and trading them with European settlers on the east coast. So people like the Comanche Kiowa were very successful from horseback and they may have actually been causing slow population declines in Bison. The story I heard him school is that white people killed off all the Bison and the truth is they did but the bison were already under a little bit of extra pressure. Thanks to the horses that white people brought. But waited until the spread of ranching and Commercial Bison hunting from Euro Americans to really collapse and by one thousand, nine, hundred, there's only maybe three hundred bison left. The West from at least thirty, million bison to just three hundred and about fifty years that by some more systematically wiped out in only a few decades thirty million bison were eventually replaced by thirty million cows de Bison izing roses really got started in the mid eighteen hundreds when people of European descent or beginning to move out west of the plains and start settling there. It was all sorts of people particularly I when it was scale so When what is Texas belong to Mexico you had lots of Mexicans who are setting up ranch's then you've got kind of poor white settlers anglos coming into the region setting things up as the American civil war approaches you got people who are kind of second and third sons of wealthy southern plantation families who can't inherit the family plantation and so they kind of go west to a place like Texas to set up kind of these small scale ranch's. Looked out at the planes and they thought, okay there are huge rangy creatures that live there why not replace them with other huge rangy creatures but why didn't they just stick with the bison that were already living there bison meat is freaking delicious and there is more of it per animal because Beissner. Bigger and bonus bison more already perfectly ecologically suited to the native. Grasslands and climate conditions. That's a really interesting question. I've I've thought about it a lot because in some ways, bison would be a very natural animal to raise. But then when I was reading diaries and things, I found that these people they were kind of disgusted bison they didn't view that as an animal that could be farmed. They saw it as a wild animal. and. So what's interesting about that is on one level people go with what they knew. Euro. Americans know about raising cattle, but another thing gets into their ideas of what is civilized and Dave you. The Bison is not the kind of animal that a civil in their minds a civilized people would raise and so cattle is the way to do it. So
The Vanessa Guillen Story
"Own. Vanessa's twenty years old. She was born and raised in Houston Texas one of six children. Does Vanessa. Immigrants from Mexico. Mom Gloria took care of the kids while Dad Hindu worked as a machine operator. Again, family is Catholic very religious. This is the baptism but allow this. Does. To sell most. That's your favorite suppo. Young. Commodity. Say I knew. Them. stylist. There is. This is just. Tell me what? Now with the terrorists inside little. Always, eight following her steps and she said I can be like me like. Me Tough. Ignore everyone. Will assign us. So. Miss you. She graduates Cesar Chavez High School. She's this girl who just dreams of a better life. and. Then she immediately lists. There you have a young, Latina. Out of high school. Who says this is what I want to I want to be in the military you Miss Yonne. Dollar lawyer complete. And Hers First, training. She didn't even WANNA come back. She was happy even when she got home, she was like a new person she was like her skin was alerted full of blowing. More staff. More. Semi the police. Say Your meal will be this on the Dr. he said he said Mammy. Sophisticated Keith them even happier that she was going to be stationed in. Texas. Close to home. But that's the was sent to Fort Hood. She was stationed there as an active duty soldier and she would make the track every weekend to visit her family and Houston. That's about a three hour drive. Fort Hood is in the middle of nowhere. Texas. tumbleweeds rolling fast space is. Known as the great place. Fort Hood is big. It's the army's largest military installation and it's the densest population of combat. Units in the United States Army it's like the New York. City. You could easily get lost at Fort Hood because it's it's pretty much its own city. They have grocery stores there they had their own mall the of schools on post you you'd never have to leave if you don't want to. The national was as small arms for pair shoulder. So her responsibilities included ensuring weapons were maintained helping with accountability and inventories that was her job. And soon after Vanessa goes to Fort Hood, her family says they notice a change in her. Disturbing her ibex, we start seeing she didn't want to eat started getting skinny again. Come Do. KOMO's. Authorised. More, sad season must threes. Is. Getting in here. For who she was not happy at four to no style. No. To Be imple- KISS AC-. Nor'easter Story. She would try to tell me that she didn't want to be at forehead I. Remember this one time she said I don't like it here. And I hope one day you understand. October, knowing that my sister was coming home. I. Was there. And she came in. She closed the door and she just started crying on her bed.
Does the Golden Gate Bridge Howl?
"To Answer Ryan's question about the sound he heard crossing the Golden Gate. Bridge. We, let our sound Engineer Rob Speight out of the studio to investigate welcome rob I live. Yeah. So what's with the sound will the sound is actually coming from the bridge itself a new sidewalk railing slats being installed as part of a win retrofit program to make the bridge safer and more resilient. I spoke with Paulo Brazil Schwartz, he works for the Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District. Bridge engineers were designing original railings they wanted to provide pedestrians a sense of safety while allowing drivers to take in views of San, Francisco East, and the Pacific Ocean to the West while on the engineers design the new railings to look like the old ones except this shape makes them look more ever dynamic I'm old railing there. There are a few inches thick almost like a two by four. The new ones are quite thin and when the wind hits them just at the right angle and with enough velocity. What we're hearing now was recorded across the bay. But what are question asker? Ryan experienced was the sound on the bridge itself, right? Yeah. The distant sound is almost ferial whereas for those on the bridge. You can hear it really land moving. So. Loud. In fact that some people even recorded in their call one driving A. The bridge is making the sound all the time. Right? Right. It does require a pretty specific set of conditions are we've only heard at a handful of times where you could hear it beyond the bridge in order to create the effect, we do wins with a little bit of more west or southwest straight west wind doesn't we produce the effect only hearing it when there's a of an angle to it, he also went onto say that wind over a certain speed is also required to make the noise, but they're still studying this to determine what speed actually is. One thing I'm excited about Nubia. In the I found out if you look at the sound using spectral and as you know I'm a bit of a Geek and I do something evenings and weekends. Fundamental frequency of the sound is very special. It's four hundred, Forty Hertz. What's so important about four, hundred and forty hertz well as any musician muno eight, four forty is the tuning standard for the musical note a above C I mean it's kind of a bit technical but in general, all Western instruments use this frequency as the basis of a standard tuning. We did it very similar analysis to yours. I'm sure taking the video and analyzing the frequency four, hundred forty hurts the most audible one. There's also a a higher frequency ten, thousand, ninety, her we did. Recognize early on that one of them had a musical connection is a happy coincidence but the bridge making new noises, musical feature certainly, not something we designed for, which is why we're doing testing and we'll be evaluating mitigation measures to camp or eliminate the noise just based on feedback we've heard from the community. So you've probably got a short window to hear the bridge singing. It's mysterious song across the bay. Before the district implements fixed, we should do keep an eye on the weather forecast for North, westerly or southwesterly wind and then go and have a listen. Rob. Speight thank you so much. Thank you. Your
What Does The Science Say
"Welcome to kids, myths and mysteries. Stores were strange and unexplained people, places and events. I'm your host Kit crumb today fringe science. Sciences defined as intellectual practical activity, encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical natural world through observation and experiment. Fringe Science is considered an inquiry into an established field of study and departs from mainstream theories in that field and is considered to be questionable by mainstream science. Now. Don't confuse fringe science with pseudoscience, which is defined as a belief in some person place or event that is mistakenly regarded as being based on scientific method but many categories once considered the product of pseudoscience have slipped into the category of fringe science and many fringe science categories are now consider pure science. A short list of categories considered to be a fringe science, include cryogenics reanimation, and suspended animation. Now, let's take a quick look at each of these. cryogenics is generally the practice according to Al Core cryonic center in Arizona of freezing people who need a cure for a disease or perhaps are in need of an Oregon and will be thought at some later time when there is a cure or an organ available. Now Look at the second fringe science on my list reanimation. That is usually thought to mean restoring life. Finally the third on my list suspended animation that would be closer to the cryogenics. Separately these three would be considered by science to be way out on the French but alcorn does freeze patients and that would seem to be suspended animation, and if indeed the patients brought back to life, you would have to call latte reanimation. Still Science would scoff at the concept yet in Japan Cell Nuclei and DNA were taken from a woolly mammoth that live twenty eight thousand years ago and implanted by scientists into the cells and Ogm of living. Five showed essential biological reactions needed for cell division. This could lead to the reanimation. Mammoth. From the frozen north where the woolly mammoth was the unsuspecting subject of natural cryogenics to lab in Japan where the mammoths DNA was brought from a state of suspended animation. To a reanimated state and planted into the oval ma-ma mouse I'd have to say that's cryogenic suspended animation and reanimation that have slipped from fringe science too pure science. Now, let's plunged down the list of fringe science to the much-maligned topic pre cognition. Simply precondition is considered the fore knowledge of an event. Let's take on a huge event debt even titanic in size, and that's pun intended. It's common knowledge that the titanic was the largest cruise ship of its time. It was considered unsinkable and perhaps because of that Monica unsinkable, it didn't have enough lifeboats for all the passengers when in mid April nineteen twelve on its maiden voyage, it hit an iceberg it sank taking with it over one, thousand, five, hundred passengers but fourteen years prior to the sinking author Morgan Robertson wrote a book titled Futility described the largest cruise ship in the world he named Titan in his book he described his ship as unsinkable and not carrying enough lifeboats for the passengers. When it in his book struck an iceberg in mid April over a thousand died strangely there are well over one dozen similarities between Robertson's Titan and the titanic. And remember he wrote about the Titan in eighteen ninety eight. Pre Cognition. Well, what else could it be? Moving along the list of fringe science, you'd find past life regression hypnotism Bo scoffed at by science at both used by licensed and highly educated counselors around the world although the list of practices an event that fall under the shadow of fringe science as long one I couldn't resist looking at artificial intelligence. You probably heard of IBM's corporations creation Watson. But Watson is program to teach itself in whatever endeavor it is directed. Intelligence natural kind you and I possess is not the same intelligence. Watson has watson can look at a room elementary students and evaluate. Standing Body language which students are following the teachers teachings which are confused and which are distracted. But the natural intelligence that you and I possess would not only separate the students in those three categories mentioned. We could probably figure out why those that followed the teacher could why those that didn't couldn't and what distracted the remainder.
What the Shell? Cracking the Lobster's Mysteries
"I still get emails about this episode of the show friends where Ross and Rachel the characters finally hookup after this law. Middle Row Manson phoebe is Kinda Tree hugger in the group She's like Oh look I knew it. Her lobster. Because, she has this kind of pop culture idea going that lobsters made life. In, there it's going to happen. How did you know that? Because she's your lobster on you guys, it's a known fact that lobsters fall love and mate for life and you know you can actually see old lobster couples walking around their tank. Hoping 'cause. They. Are lobster. All these years later, I can still hear phoebe in my head saying bad. She convinced millions of people that lobsters are super romantic on the all I care is that lobsters are super delicious but I guess it's good that they have some happiness before ending up inside a buttered roll. Delicious Delicious Lobster Roll I live in New England and Lobster are pretty much the pinnacle of summer here. Perfect for the latest episode of gastropod The podcast that looks at food. Through the Lens of Science in history I'm Cynthia Graber and I'm Nicola Twilley and this episode we're considering the lobster like first things I do lobster's really have lifelong love affairs as phoebe claims or are there relationships a little more complicated than that heads up for those of you listening with folks who might find lobster sex little too steamy. Sorry. But this episode really does get into it with the lobster bedroom action you have been warned time getting a little worm. Already but speaking of steamy, how did steamed lobsters go from prison fair to the highest chalance a fine dining out of the lobster go from trashy too fancy and finally, what does the military one with our lobsters quick note from our last episode for you Baker's out there some listeners. Let us know that American pyrex is no longer borough silica glass. European. PYREX is which is great. But American. PYREX is now made of tempered Soda Lime Glass which is the same. Stuff as drinking glasses, but the tempering means it's harder and also heat resistant, but it's not quite as shatterproof Hasbro Silica class. So Americans can cook in this new PYREX. There's a lot of fine print from the company about how to use. It can actually shatter. We've updated the episode, but we also wanted those of you who already listen to know and be careful if you've got the newer American pyrex exploding glass is not a fun mix in cakes and casseroles. Couple of weeks ago I had to Maine, with my partner Tim for some very critical gastropod research someone has to do the hard work on this show Cynthia taking one for the team like the hero she is. I'M GONNA see how easy it is to crack this lobster shell. They didn't give me any like cranky things. How do I crack a lobster? Without a lobster cracker to bring your own. It didn't say turns out. All I had to do is go back to where the Napkins were and grab a nutcracker okay. I'M GONNA I'M GONNA try. Okay. That's not so bad. So the cracking wasn't super hard to do, and then I sat right into gorge myself on all that delicious lobster meat of course, all the while dipping it into the cup of melted butter. One of the very few things I miss about living on the east coast is the summertime lobster roll. I personally am a hot butter girl although I won't turn down a Cold Mayo. Role I'm equal opportunity when it comes to lobster roll I love lobster rolls. I also love whole steamed lobsters as you listeners all just heard and some are really is the height of lobster season here. It's when the waters closer to shore warm up and the lobsters crawl into that shallower water to and mate, and they also happen to crawl into lots of local lobster traps. Summer is also when the shore in. New. England finally. Warms up enough for lots of tourists to crawl out onto it and enjoy a summer vacation tourists like Trevor Corson of the book, the secret life of lobsters my grandparents were summer visitors to Maine when I was a little kid and we would go visit them there and as a very small child, I was completely entrenched with the lobster boats when they would come into the dock. So watch them unload their lobster catch and to me, the lobstermen were were like these cowboys of the East you know they were these romantic rugged individualism and I was so angered of of them in their boats that I had decided already. Pretty. Early on when I was a kid I was going to grow up to be a Lobsterman and that didn't plan pan out. At all trevor became a writer instead, which as everyone knows is way less glamorous but he figured out a way to finagle himself into becoming a temporary lobstermen by writing a book about it, and so I actually moved to the small island. You know with seventy people on it year round in the winter and lived there for two years and became what's called a stern man on a lobster boat fishermen used often the term fishermen are stern man in a gender neutral way. There are females who call themselves that as
The March ON Washington, 57 Years Later
"Hello I'm Deborah Roberts those images from today an echo of something fifty seven years ago when a quarter of a million people I descended on the nation's capital protesting for jobs and freedom. On today's anniversary of Dr Martin Luther. King Junior's I have a dream speech we at twenty twenty or proud to present the march a documentary directed by Jonah Comfort and narrated by Denzel Washington originally made in twenty thirteen to commemorate the Marches Fiftieth Anniversary. Some of those voices sadly are now gone, but their legacy lives on. I have had to tell my children about the segregates what it means. Seven year old daughter she wanted to go from town. And we found it necessary to explain to That she couldn't go to fun town because she was colored. To attempt to explain a system like unjust and. Segregation. Six year old child is very difficult thing. In nineteen sixty three. The Movement for civil rights came to the most segregated city in the American. South. Birmingham Alabama. All. Resistant to the gration. Thoroughly, segregated. City the United States. had. More on saw on. WILL HOMES ENSURE A. United. States. Many other southern city. Okay. Birmingham is bombing him. They have quarries and conducting the quarry business you used dynamite. So there are a lot of local people who are expert in Isa Dynamic. Teenage. Board riding a bicycle had been knocked off the bike and castrated. Young couple had gone to the City Hall to get a wedding license. Came around the corner. And Brush shoulders with Birmingham policeman and he pulled out his pistol and pistol whipped the more to the ground. It was a horrible heinous place. The campaign was to be led by the organisation's Ben Thirty four year old leader. The Reverend Dr Martin Luther King Junior. WHO HEARD PEOPLE? who except in dusted oppression and second-class citizenship. in an attempt waiting go the Paul Pompidou. The time all we ripe to do right. Dr King was the voice of Civil Rights from the bus boycott on but by the end of nineteen, sixty, two, he recognized. That the civil rights movement. was. Losing what he called its window and history. The. South was still segregated and he said we need to take more of a risk. We need to go for broke I need to go for broke. I think he felt that. We have to be willing to give our lives to put an end to segregation. If we do. Then segregation will end even if we die. That was the reason he chose. Birmingham. For the victory won some even have to face physical death. We must come to see the now some things. So eternally true that they're worth dying for, and if a man has not discovered something that he will die for he fit live. In January of Nineteen, sixty three. One man was determined to stop kings desegregation message from spreading any further. Birmingham's police chief Eugene. Bull Connor. Negro is off the attempted takeover of our country the lazy. The beat nate, the ignorant and buy some misguided religious and bleeding ought. Do, you think you can keep coming in the present situation of segregation I may not be able to do it, but I'll die trying. Overcoming Bull Connor segregationists zeal not to mention his jails would take something special. And in the winter of sixty, three king would find out just how special that effort needed to be. Spent all of January February and March nineteen sixty three training people to accept nonviolence to go down into marches and be willing to go into bull connor's jails. But. Conner's jails were so fearsome that no matter how much they exhorted people no matter how many freedom songs they sang, how many prayers they prayed, how much fervor there was in the meetings, people wouldn't show up to risk going into those jails.
Rocky Road with Science Diction
"Both Fenton's and dryers have pretty straightforward stories for how they invented rocky road in dryers version. It was William Dryer himself who one day in nineteen twenty nine did to make an ice cream with nuts chocolate and marshmallows but at the time, marshmallows did not yet come in small versions that came in cheats. So he took his wife's picking shears and cut the marshmallows into four pieces and then stuffed in the ice cream and Taba rocky road was born dryer says the name was meant to quote give folks something to smile about in the face of the Great Depression. According to Fenton's it was a candy maker on staff who came up with it story goes one day. He was making a candy bar with you guessed it nuts chocolate and marshmallows, and he was like you know what would be a great idea is if I put this candy bar in the ice cream and he did it and it was hit via end, the rest is history for over two years. Elissa tried to find out who's story was true. She turned up alleged confession a denial of that confession just a whole lot of ice cream fueled drama more on that from Elissa later because it turns out that people have a lot of feelings about rocky road. Would Weird Al do attribute to Vanilla. Vanilla is the definition of boring and it has a boring name to go with it. But Rocky Road Sounds Fun playful even somehow delicious which it shouldn't it is a road with rocks in it But when it comes to food names, it's not just what the word means. It's how it sounds. It's something that linguists and food marketing types seem to understand very well. At my little grocery store here in San. Francisco. In my little neighbourhood of Brunel Heights Dandruff ski is a linguist. He wrote a book called the language of food. And I was just scanning the cracker aisle and I noticed that every single cracker name had an in it and I was like something's going on here. So I started really from the cracker aside and I thought well, what's the opposite of crackers but that would be ice cream Dan decided to run a little experiment he went online downloaded eighty-one ice cream flavors from brands like Ben and Jerry's haagen-dazs. Then he went to a diet website downloaded six hundred cracker brand names and he noticed a pattern it had to do with the vowels I just counted how many of these ice creams versus crackers which one had more front vowels like e or Which one had more back vowels like you're all and there was a striking difference. Alright. So Front vowels the E in cheese the IT. Feel higher tongue moves. When you make those sounds, you're kind of lifting at toward the front of your mouth. Cheese. Now, say chocolate Mousse. Those words are full of back. AL's pay attention to your tongue again, chocolate. Mousse. This time it's hold more towards the back. Then discovered that the cracker names had nearly all front vowels. Vs and is. So. That's your cheeses and wheat thins and Krispy triscuit crisps chicken in a biscuit. But the ice creams that's back vowels at your your Jamaica Almond Fudge chocolate, your Caramel, your cookie dough, your coconut, and your rocky road. So
a secret wrapped in mystery
"If you watched or listened to the news, you may have noticed the. Use of the phrase we didn't WANNA panic. The American people the truth is those words usually come out of the mouth will call Titian who didn't want to face the backlash of his constituents over particular decision he made. But what if there was something that was real and not a particular political ploy or conspiracies theory something that could kill you that had been cloaked in secrecy and his only now being acknowledged as a threat still played down. That's something is a disease, a fungus, no less the common name. The one you'll hear used in the news is indeed rs as of the time of this podcast, it remains drug resistant, they don't have a cure. It is rarely caught early because it's early symptoms are fever and chills at don't improve after antibiotic treatment. Think for a moment. How many times have you gotten a fever just sweated it out. As I mentioned KENDEDA RS is a fungus yeast as a fungus that lives in the body. Generally, a fungus cannot thrive or grow embodies ninety eight point, six degree temperature that can deal or a can our body is a sealed system. Artists can live on the skin fairly harmlessly. But if a cut is infected with it or introduced into the blood, it will be fatal. In. Cases those that have been diagnosed with CONDADO RS in the blood have died within ninety days of the diagnosis. In one case it was determined that the hospital room of victim of Candy RS was contaminated with the fungus it was on the hospital bedrooms the phone, the sheets, the doorknobs it was also determined that standard disinfectants used to clean hospital rooms had no effect on the fungus. Because it can live on the skin. This means the doctors and nurses have to find a way to eliminate the risk of contaminating patients just like the FBI with its ten most wanted list. The CDC has an urgent threat list and Candida RS is at the top. Yet. This super fungus is not new. It emerged in Venezuela then appeared in Spain India. Pakistan that it turned up in South Africa. In the United States has been detected in New York New Jersey and Illinois. So how many in the United States have been affected? Will one of the problems with researching something that is cloaked in secrecy is getting an accurate figure. I have been given numbers ranging anywhere from thirteen cases to over seven hundred thousand cases truth more than half the people contracted need. Ours have died within ninety days. So the death rate is six or three, hundred and fifty thousand. Researchers say that as the climate in certain areas has increased, candied orange has adopted to the point that it can live in the human body. They found that it is also related to agriculture as more antifungal are applied to plans to keep them from rotting these plants are consumed incident of data infection will increase. The fungus can be found on meets manure fertilized vegetables. Although there is no cure for an individual that is infected hospitals are adapting to type of robot that uses a pulsating violently. That removes micro organisms including candied office. For the average American researchers, say it is best to consume organic fruits and vegetables thus avoiding the rampant use of fungicides contributing to the surge of this drug resistant fungus.
Negative Mount Pleasant
"So there's this tiny town in Wisconsin called Mount pleasant populations just twenty, six, thousand people, village and life in Mount. Pleasant is usually is quiet as you'd expect. Their suburb of Racine, home of malted milk and the sight of some of America's largest cabbage farms. But that's the city now presents the suburb place were nothing really happens. Until last year when the village became the site of a completely unprecedented massive international experiment. Truth. Even Mundane. It's going to tell the story this fall. I went to pleasant to meet this woman named Kelly Gallaher. Hi. Halley. commanded she lives in his ivy-covered split. Level House my home is located about. A little bit over a mile from from Lake Michigan so. Did she say? It's really beautiful out here by receiving. It's like a very light blue almost like a Caribbean vibe. It's it's all about the light I think it's magical. I think. I even like how the lake looks on my gps. Like it that much Kelly has been here for thirty years and she used to be an arts educator. But now she's basically retired. When did you start getting involved in kind of more? I don't I don't know what to call it activism or just Kinda village. What would you call it well? What if there is a name? I think other people have a lot of names for for what I do but. Ones I I probably wouldn't care to repeat the polite name that Kelly's detractors might use for her is busy body. She's an extremely vocal participant and the town's local democracy and her main stage is this place called village. Okay. The hours upon us I would. Like to open the village board meeting, Order Religions. Village Hall which sits right next to the local white is where the residents of mount pleasant all gather twice a month with their village government to talk about all the local issues that need fixing through weeds this high in the yard of one of the vacation homes this. Hi. It's been vacant for I. Don't know how many years gale for years. It's been vacant. We're going to have some recommendations and numbers for the Lake Park Fluffy Rosen, which is very Army number one on our agenda, our softball game we had this last Sunday for the case athletics. That went over very well to I didn't get any reports of injuries so we're good. Pictures in the paper though in Racine County the mount. Pleasant. Village Hall meetings are famous very well attended. They actually taped the meetings and upload them to the website, and if you're like me and have watched every single wine, you will look forward to the moment when Kelly good evening my name is Kelly Gallaher. Her Red Hair Hoop earrings steps up to the Mike Lees Captain Brian. Smith. Collected thirty three, thousand, seven, hundred and fourteen dollars an overtime pay in addition to his salary vacation. Her tally is basically the local civics watchdog. A joint parks has had no minutes published since April two, thousand, fourteen almost every week she uses her allotted three minutes to make it very clear to the people in power that she has her eye on them is outrageous by mount pleasant standards. Hauled corruption and we intend to get to the bottom of it. Thank you. Thank you for weekly Sunshine and good share. That man who sounds very exasperated that is Dave degroot village president. He is sitting behind this big long table in this large office chair at the center of the screen, and he's flanked on both sides by his six village trustees. Dave. Runs this meeting David Kelly. Like each other they disagree on pretty much. Every single thing to do with the future of Mount Pleasant. Kelly has a sign on her front lawn that says David degroot must resign and David grew lives ten doors down from her. It's an intense block and Kelly told me that it got especially bad about a year ago when she was helping Dave's opponent in the village election. The previous March when he was running for office, he sent out a press release a basically accusing me of egging his house. Egging his house Yes yes. He filed a police report and suggested in his press release that I had been involved in the attack the political at an actual literal egg attack on his home, which the police report did not verify at all. In fact, it was the the described it as as teenagers and a single egg that was tossed on his driveway was hardly an attack I was not there. I only buy organic eggs which are far too expensive to throw it. Anyone's house let alone someone I don't like it was it was ridiculous. So it's fair to say that my relationship with with him was contentious I think he's a fool and a terrible per village president.
"Night Welcome to kids Miss Mystery Cyber your host kit chrome today. I'm going to talk about how some Mistakes made it into text books and I'm going to start with the woolly mammoth arose about five point one million years ago in Africa according to the curator of the American Museum of Natural History in New York from Africa the mammoth migrated through Eurasia North America their evolution continued over millions of years eventually producing what we know now as the wooly mammoth beginning roughly two, hundred, fifty, thousand years ago. mammoths were extinct about ten thousand years ago. OOPS more like three, thousand, five, hundred years ago scientists now believe an isolated population of mammoth persisted on Wrangel Island off the northeastern coast of Siberia. And deep in Canada's Northwest Territories, World Heritage site in hunt, valley until about three thousand, seven, hundred years ago. Unfortunately, the ten thousand year mark of extinction is in most textbooks. But let's take a closer look at that date the prominent theory that made it into most textbooks. Encyclopedia's remember those was ten thousand years ago because it was believed for decades at the mammoth migrated from the African continent through. Eurasian North America, driven by the last ice age, they were following the food supply. If that's the case, then it makes sense that some moms ended up into Hani because it was never touched by. The last ice age and yes bone. So the mammoth have been found in that region but this isn't the first theory published in Texbook. As fact that there's some founded expend believed and yes, made it into text books that the continent of Antarctica has been covered by ice for millions of years again hoops the Perry reese map drawn in fifteen thirteen shows the northern coast of Arctic as ice-free. The most puzzling aspect of the map isn't how it managed to be. So accurate three hundred years before Antarctica was discovered but that the map shows the real Coche line under the ice geological evidence. has confirmed that the latest date and Artika could have been charted in an ice free ages. Four thousand BC officials sciences been saying all along the ice cap, which covers yet arctic is millions of years old the Perry reese at Arctic map shows, but the northern part of that continent has been mapped before the ice covered it. That could make us think it has been mapped a million years ago but that's impossible since mankind did not exist at that time further and more accurate studies have proven that the last period of ice free condition and already got ended about six thousand years ago. The question is who map Queen Maud land at Arctic six thousand years ago which unknown civilization, how the technology or the need to do that I wanNA touch on just one more scientific nestled in the ancient city of Komo. Polka Bolivia are stone blocks that were used to make up a series of Pyramids Wayne from two hundred to four hundred tons each block nothing unusual there the city dates back to five, thirty, six AD. Yet. The blocks are riddled with carved indentations and in the surrounding grasses were found. Staple shaped clamps that fit in place were used to hold the blocks together. How could the indigenous people? No knowledge of urgency have created these clamps and where did the metal they use come from? This isn't the only case of metal clamps being used to hold giants don't together in Cambodia's anchor watt giant sandstone blocks way nearly two tonnes were brought to the site of the temple from nearby mountain via series of waterways. Close inspection of stones that are scattered around the site have revealed carved indentation receptacles for metal clamps perhaps. How about an eerie coincidence just outside the magnificent ruins of anger what stands an ancient pyramid temple known as backseat clump core now from Cambodia. Travel over eight thousand miles to Guatemala in the ancient Mayan city of Tacoma all among the long forgotten structures at the call is the Temple of the Great Jaguar although the Cambodian pyramid is much smaller than the pyramid in Guatemala the similarities between the specific design features are uncanny both. These pyramids both these ancient structures have an unusually steep slope angle that didn't exist in many other pyramids or temples however, and perhaps most importantly they both feature a stepped formation. There's a massive stairwell going up the middle of both temples and there's a domed area located on the top of both once there you can see there's a small door that goes inside the pyramid on both and there's another internal structure that looks the same. Basically what you have here is an ancient civilization. Cambodia. Another one in Mesoamerica despite the fact that they are separated by more than nine thousand miles, they feature incredible similarities that no one not even science has been able to explain
Shatter-Proof: How Glass Took Over the Kitchenand Ended Child Labor
"I am a Coloratura Mr Beast not Annette's. Well, whatever you are on record sal show Debra sent you over here. He didn't. You told me was your age. I nine and in spite of what you think. There are some professions where practice does make perfect. Julie Andrews pretending to be a man pretending to be a woman and still managing to shatter a wine glass with her gorgeous and super powerful voice at least in the movie Victor Victoria. But you know you can't believe everything you see on the big screen like breaking a wine glass with just a perfect flat yeah. I always been a long held ambitions. Break wine glasses of the sound. Some of you longtime gastropod listeners might recognize that Voice Zoe. Laughlin. Is none other than the star of our very first episode who said that mango sorbet tastes sublime on gold spoons hers is the voice that is inspired the purchase of a thousand golden spoons or at least a half dozen that we know about though is not just spoon aficionado. She's a material scientist and director of the Institute of Making at University College London, and this episode we were excited to talk to her again not about gold spoons. But about glass I mean even though I should've understand it on paper. Everything about glasses still sort of extraordinary mysterious like just the fact that is transparent when pretty much everything else isn't transparent is extraordinarily we have a lot of questions this episode for one. How did something? So seemingly delicate and breakable get to be so ubiquitous in the kitchen and also how come you could never put a drinking glass in the oven, but you can cook in a glass dish. What does the? Invention of the bottling machine have to do with a beautiful stretch of protected sand dunes along the shores of Lake Michigan or with the rise of Ketchup and Coca Cola and the abolition of Child Labor for that matter and more importantly can you actually shatter glass using sound did zoe pull it off by the way Cynthia you might not have realized this but this episode is dedicated to your mother glassmaker extraordinaire. Of. Glasswork on display in my house as we speak and I have at least five pieces of fused and stained Tama Graber, glass mom, this one's for you. What is glass? All glass everywhere in the world is at least seventy percent made of sand that's been melted down and it's mixed together in a way that the atoms don't have any kind of order them, and that's what gives rise to it being transparent. You've already heard from Zoe now it's time to meet our other two intrepid glass enthusiasts who will be inducting us into the mysteries of this material. This episode been Speiser journalist and author of a very enjoyable book called the World Grain, the story of Sand and how it transformed civilization and an Isa Ramirez, material scientist and author of another totally delightful. Book. Called the Alchemy of US humans and matter transform one, another Zoe and Isa and bins are all about glass. You cannot overstate how ubiquitous glass is and how important it is to the modern world in which we all live I'm just looking around the kitchen where I'm standing there glass bottles holding olive oil. There's glass windows they're glass fixtures around the glass lightbulbs to everything from you know salt shakers and I glass lenses to things like twenty ton telescope lenses in the world's most powerful telescopes. It's in the fiber optic cables that connect to the Internet fiber optic cables made it literally of Spun. Glass. So really without glass we wouldn't have modern civilization. So we've established that this miraculous foundation of modern civilization is made of melted down sand with a few other ingredients thrown in but to go back another step, and this is a strange question but what is sand and is all sand the same thing? The Word San means just any small pieces Greens right of any hard substance so sand can be. Anything, you know it can be flint it can be courtside anything any kind of stone but the most common form of sand. Most of the sand in the world is courts, which is silicon dioxide and to make glass. That's what you need. You need court sand and you need a specially high security court sand. This seems very fortunate. You need court sand to make glass, and that turns out to be what most of the sand is primarily because courts is so hard that it just outlasts all the other rocks is they're all getting ground down together. You do still have to clean the courts end. Up a bit and get out the last remaining impurities and you have to add a few other ingredients to lower the melting temperature of quartz, and then you heat it up, you need a huge amount of heat. So while I like one, thousand, seven, hundred degrees Celsius which mostly in Fahrenheit I mean it's over three thousand degrees Fahrenheit based bloody hot. Eventually the sand melts and then it re congeals and a weird thing happens when it turns into a solid again, courts is a crystal but glass is not what a weird structure because it's not a crystal crystals are actually made up of atoms arranged like soldiers. In rows but glass is sort of like picture of kindergartners at resets, atoms are all over the place, and so that's what makes it unusual but it's that chaos in the arrangement of atoms that actually gives rise to it having the property of transparency.
The Ancient Ones
"Welcome to kiss myths and mysteries I'm your host kit chrome. Today we're GONNA take a look at a mystery at mystery at least as deep as Amelia earhart. What happened to the honesty Indians? The honest are originally from Siberia during the Ice Age what became native Americans crossed over a land bridge it appeared because of the low sea level. The Ana Sasi tribe eventually settled in what is now era sonal well, maybe not how they were a native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and northern New Mexico and. From about one hundred ad whose descendants are considered to include the present day puddle people I dug a little deeper and discovered that the name on a Sasi means ancient wants doesn't make sense. The Apache were given that name Apache by their enemy if it's true that the. Came over from Siberia or existed in what is now American southwest around one hundred ad as some speculate than it is doubtful that they would have called themselves the ancient ones but what's in a name and what happened to them? This was not some small tribe in the eighteen eighties when many of their dwellings were found on the face of Mason, they were dubbed cliff-dwellers. Many of the dwellings were over six hundred feet up and built into sheer cliff faces. Some were a dozen stories high and consisted of over eight hundred rooms. There were grain rooms rooms for dining rooms for sleeping today's and estimated that the on Sasi numbered about thirty thousand, one theory dates, their disappearance between six hundred and thirteen hundred ad again, what happened to them perhaps like the Mayans they migrated were simulated the Zuni, the Hopi Indians? Oh, today believed that theory one Hopi elder explained about a thousand years ago. The elderly reportedly said, the Pueblo was visited by savage strangers from the north. The villagers treated the interlopers kindly but soon, the newcomers devastate their farms and that is why they began to build their homes high up in the cliffs. Okay. That explains why they lived in cliff dwellings still what happened to them? Where did they go contemporary scientists think that life was pretty good for the ancient ones why then did they end up abandoning their magnificent agriculture and permanent homes to migrate hundreds of miles and seemingly lose their cultural identities and Hopi Land Suny. And the Pueblos the upper real `grande, oral histories of the Hopi Zuni Pueblo people as well as scientific findings suggest that the exodus from places like Jaakko and Mesa Verde may have been. Family by family or clan by clan and may have occurred over a hundred years. Scientists suggest that things like poor sanitation should pass. An environmental degradation may have caused on Sasi to move think for a minute of a cliff face village six, hundred feet off of valley floor with eight hundred rooms where the residents for maybe five hundred people where did the sanitation factor play out? It would have been an awful long descent to use a local capital unlike the hokum people to the south on a saas he did not build huge irradiation canals on a Sasi diversion and collection of national precipitation was not irrigation in the usual sense in general their dry land farming. On the natural blessings of rain and runoff melting snow often they helped mother nature by building check dams, terracing hillsides. So locating fields near the mouth of royals springs one of the largest of their water conservation efforts was a five hundred thousand gallon reservoir at Mesa Verde after poring over dozens of documents and stacks of books I realized that no one has come up with an answer of what happened to the thirty thousand plus on a saucy unlike a lot of ancient civilizations left scrolls and etchings on the walls on saucy left nothing. So where did they information? We have on these cliff waller's come from to Colorado. Cowboys are said to discover the magnificent cliff towel structure at Mesa Verde. On a bitterly cold day in December eighteen, eighty eight, the male members of the ranching family soon became amateur archaeologists, digging gathering selling pottery weapons, tools, and other artifacts mostly to museums even without formal training, they were able to identify major distinctions in the pottery they found and conclude that different sites were occupied during different time periods in the late twentieth century the melting of more sophisticated scientific techniques and contemporary native American Indian knowledge has dramatically increased. Our understanding these people for some time many scientists have gone about their business privately evaluating physical evidence and police seen theories about the long gone a Sasi scientific speculation about the mysterious disappearance of the builders of the cliff dwellings continued to the current era.
Sleeping with Fear
"Listening. Welcome to kiss myths and mystery your host Kit crump apparently a podcast I. Did a couple months ago of kept people up late at night including one woman from. SEATTLE. Who asked me to repeat this podcast and she signed it sleepless in Seattle the podcast is about night terrorists have you ever had a nightmare the kind of dream where you wake up in a cold sweat and can remember every detail what was it that scared you and how scared were you really can you be so terrorized that you have a heart attack could you die in your sleep due to a nightmare? The answer is, yes. Yes. You can be scared to death. It's call para sympathetic rebound. Paris sympathetic rebound is delayed reaction of the Para sympathetic nervous system during a tense and or prolonged stress to the opposed sympathetic nervous system. Now. Let's take a look at dreams most of US dream every night even we don't remember doing. So sometimes dreams feel super short usually if they're about something really good like the perfect date with your celebrity crush other times, they can feel like they're going on forever the entire night, which can be particularly annoying if they're scary or causing you anxiety. If you've wondered about the actual length of an average dream, you certainly earned alone there are lot of mysterious questions. About Dreams and researchers are still trying to learn to answer what science does know of Audrey Muniz. This dreams are basically a mental exercise happens while someone is sleeping dreams occur during rapid eye movement Aram part of sleep, which accounts about twenty percent of the night. No one really knows exactly why we dream there are a lot of theories out there according to some researchers dreams exist to process intense emotions or facilitate consolidation of emotional memories. Some believe that dreams help. Show. US. Daytime threats. So the can learn how to avoid them or show US counterfactual simulations today time events so that we can learn lessons. There are also researchers who don't think dreams exists for any reason at all really they just do and what are nightmares nightmare scary or terrifying dreams that typically occur in Rams sleep and leave the dream of shaken or disturbed to some extent upon waking some researchers maintain that for a dream to be a nightmare at has. To be disturbing enough to awaken the dreamer other experts point out that many non scary dreams erotic. Sad nostalgic creative spiritual can be intense enough to awaken the dreamer also. So now let's take this full circle. What is one of the key factors would wake you up answer over stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and what is para sympathetic rebound but the delayed reaction to the Para sympathetic nervous system to over stimulation perhaps if you dream you die but wake up. In a coal sweat there simply wasn't enough extreme long-term stress to cause para sympathetic rebound but could you be scared to death by a nightmare? The answer is a resounding. Yes and they're sleepless in Seattle is a repeat of my nightmare
A Mother & Her Newborn Separated by COVID-19
"I scare. It's so great to talk to you after all this hard work on your film. It's it's it's really good to be here. So thank you so much for having me. Yeah, I. Mean, we're so we're so excited. I know this is your first frontline. So congratulations on making over the finish line with us together. It feels really good I to be honest I'm also a view or an an a big fan. So it's It's a real pleasure to be working with. Such a talented group of people. Thank you. So I I was hoping you could set the scene a little bit for us. This is an immigrant family from Guatemala and the Mother Zoo League. Is close to giving birth to her second child when she's hospitalized with the virus. So what happens next? So it's it's April first and was eight months pregnant and Kobe positive tool doctors determined that he had to be intimated to perform an emergency c section. Baby Mazel was born on April second baby was Kovic negative. The real problem here was that his father Marvin and his seven-year-old brother junior were also covid positive. So there was no way he could go back to that that that environment that was a real problem school. Before it being intimidated solution was able to. Ms. Luciana. Lira Luciana Lira is juniors. Schoolteacher and she said, help my son help my husband and my baby. Massad listen, Marvin I am willing to help one hundred percent I really do not know this family. Zilly just came to the United. States. I think a year ago and Marvin has been here for six years and junior is my bilingual student. And that's how I met them. When we were able to test marketing engineer, they were both Cova nine hundred positive. This baby would've not stand a chance if he went home with his father with Covid nineteen and junior. His, just a preemie baby. I think that that tells you so much about Miss Lewis character and and her her personality for you to receive a phone call like that I really need to take care of my son, my husband and my baby and she did I mean, can you imagine you received the phone call? She thought that it was a joke that that it was a prank I. Mean. What's amazing is actually that was the first footage of your documentary that we saw the really truly remarkable scene with MISL- era and the baby, and you know she's holding the baby and she's telling you this incredible story about why she took all of this on. To be honest I I'm living. Sure how? I was able to get that that access because she was not letting anyone in her house and she told me, Hey, not even my sister is allowed to be in here. And I'm like well, I'm going to try to be. Is Just GonNa be me I'm going to have a camera. Ms Lira trust me I'm going to try to be you know as cautious as I can be. I think just important that you share that story and I think she wanted to share this story otherwise wouldn't have been possible at all. I went to the hospital with Marvin. Wasn't easy because you know he saw his son for the first time. You couldn't even go him. To. US. And it really broke my heart. After going through such a big trauma not even knowing if your wife was gonna make it, do Pakatani communicated to be. A month of. On the Nights at the baby home. Right, maybe. It was amazing seeing those those early scenes that you had filmed. You know obviously, you guys didn't know how this was gonNA turn out and I remember talking to you sometime before mother's Day and you were telling us that maybe Suli we'd get her baby back. I mean you certainly didn't think it was going to go on for as long as it did was actually five and a half weeks. So tell me about the emotional journey that Suli and Marvin her husband were on you know I think that The story was so unexpected and it had so many twists that I think nobody was expecting it Ms Lear thought that she was going to keep the baby for maybe two or three days. It was very emotional to witness the lives of and Marvin all of them were were positive at that time and the pediatrician said if the baby is going to go back home. Everyone in that house need to test negative, otherwise, it can happen. So you can imagine that the minutes felt like ours you know in the our failed like days to them it was really difficult for for for Suli it was very, very difficult for her because she was going through a lot. You know she said that she had night Mertz pretty much every single night and that she she was not able to get any risk at all You know it's not easy. Imagine that that she said, I didn't have a chance to look at my son you know in I just have A. Faded picture of him and that the only thing I know they do a lot of video conferences. So to say, watts up, that was their main way of communication and missle era. You know she was sending videos every day calling them. You know just to make sure that that bond was was still there you know kind of like a virtual bond. That moment, but it's the law of mom. There was a very powerful connection and you can see it when you see in the scene when they when when she's holding the baby for the first time, I mean, it's just an electrifying moment.
Digging for the truth
"The Welcome to kiss Miss Mystery signed your host. Kit crump night been receiving a usual amount of people wondering how I tracked down the facts refined the truth when I'm working on a story. So I'm going to run down the process I'd take when investigating and urban legend and try to give a couple of examples, I i. look for anyone that actually experienced the event if that individual doesn't want to talk to me, which is usually the case. Then, I attempt to track down a witness to the event. Often when there are someone that actually experienced a paranormal event, let's say they are often embarrassed or reluctant to speak to anyone for fear, they're going to be criticized or accused of making up the entire event in some cases that involve things political or the government I can utilize the freedom of information. Act But they usually take forty five days or more to respond if the event. Is something that was reoccurring. Then I can tap into police be I reports. However, they are often. So editor redacted with black lines disliked trying to figure out a code to best understand the process will recite a couple of examples I of flying saucer that crashed at Roswell keep in mind that I'm going to leave out a lot of detail and I'm only going to explain off the flying saucer itself no alien bodies involved in this first. Trace the image of a saucer back to nineteen forty seven in horten brothers who created both a saucer and flying wing both brothers were brought back to the United States with two hundred and fifty other scientists at the end of the war in something that was called project paper clip. You may have heard of this where in the United States could the Horton's and other scientists work well, area fifty one of course at what became area fifty one. I continue this option that they would continue work on the flying wing or flying saucer I. Now Research Project Rainbow is a program using some of Tesla's science in an effort to move a battleship from point a to point b you might know this as a Philadelphia experiment. The idea was not to make anything invisible simply to move it from one place to. Another and the military failure they had made a small battleship both vanish and move from one point to another. Now, they bring that science to the Horton saucer and it becomes up flying saucer. The problem is that they can't control the Horton's flying saucer any better than the L. Ridge which was the battleship they tried it out on initially with line saucer vanishes and. then. Reappears eight hundred miles away word crashes at Roswell New Mexico this. You'd give you a very rough idea of the thinking connecting process. Keep in mind that if I have a strange unexplained event, I don't want to go to the authorities or police wrath be I with whatever because they are not equipped for accurate reports on things that go bump in the. Night that leads me to my second example a while back I got a book did explained away dozens and dozens of urban legends is a hundred percent boss. But when I opened the book to the first one, the author said, it could possibly be happening yet. I know for a fact, kidney harvesting does happen and is going on in the United States right now. The book explained away the notion that people are having their kidneys harvest it well, here's what I know. Twenty years ago I was in a restaurant with my editor. The booking question was my book body parts a story I had written about the sale of block market body parts as I was explaining the research a waitress came over and told us how some of her friends had gone to New Orleans and one of them strayed from the group in hoax. So picking up a woman for the night, they had all been. Showing an apartment and she said he would join them in the morning. If he simply ended up closing down a few bars long story short when he didn't show up, they manage to track him down to a flop house where they found him in a bathtub filled with ice less one kidney. So they get into a local hospital at an after examination. The doctor tells them that the surgery necessary to remove that kidney without killing the patient had been carried out in a surgical unit with a team of surgeons trained to. Remove a kidney. This waitress didn't know either my editor or myself. She said her friend who lost a kidney lives in Ashland Oregon but I never tried to contact him but you could see from this second example, how many urban legends are often just dismissed out of hand. The author of that book I was mentioning dismissed the kidney harvesting only consulted police in several doctors. Of course, neither of his sources would have anything to do with kidney harvesting for a lot of different reasons not to mention that harvesting any Oregon is. A federal offense
Getting Naked in San Francisco: A History
"Who other than reporter just plot check could take on this not safe for work assignment off she goes from. The state of California has indecent exposure laws, but those only apply if someone is being sexual like masturbating in public or intentionally offensive flashing someone. But what if you're just hanging out naked minding your own business? California leaves that up to local governments. For the first half of the Twentieth Century San Francisco didn't have public nudity laws. FRISKIN S- just didn't go nude much but then the sixties arrived and with it naked people. Some saw disrobing as a form of political artistic or personal expression college students got a taste for streaking and then there were the hippies. It's just delightful to be in I'll be in and that's what this is another exotic prank to add to a growing list of student oriented rites of Spring. It's sort of a happy happening for hippies in San Francisco hippies wanted to get closer to nature and they got naked a lot in golden gate park. Here's a quote from police chief. Thomas Hill it wasn't uncommon for a Gal that come out of the bushes there in the. Panhandle. Without a damn stitch and stand right in front of you with our hands up. I was out in the park in two started going to it on the lawn beside me just to remind you sex is sexual and as such already illegal according to the state. But still conservatives wanted tougher local laws to prevent this kind of behavior and they eventually got nudity banned in the parks. However, the rest of San Francisco was still fair game. As time passed other cities made public nudity illegal among them, San Jose, and Berkeley Berkeley's interesting because it's been mostly due to one naked Guy Andrew Martinez a student at the University of California Berkeley. Decided that American society is sexually repressed and in an effort to write things he began attending classes and going everywhere else in the nude save for a pair of sandals backpack people theorized that Martinez was able to go nude without major complaint for so long because he was easy on the is Martinez attempted shock tactic soon, became old news among his fellow students to me was simply the naked guy. Administrators however sent Martinez home to stay warm until his case can be considered by a student conduct board in Nineteen ninety-two Martinez was expelled showed up naked to his disciplinary hearing at UC. Then in one, thousand, nine, hundred, three here arrived naked to a Berkeley city council meeting members were offended and voted to make public nudity a misdemeanor crime. Back in San Francisco Nudist, enjoy their time in the Sun City developed a reputation for bodies in the buff especially at certain public events like folsom street fair a leather fetish festival or Beta breakers of rambunctious twelve k race who was an exhilarating experience people on the sidelines cheering. Go naked people go. All right.
Teenagers Surfing on the Wave of the Apocalypse
"I've been approached about the student teacher story before by people who always seem to have this moralistic agenda to tell this cautionary tale of young people who are in over their heads or taken advantage of with too much freedom and sex and drugs, and rock and roll. And I definitely want to be clear with you that I actually believe that artistic exploration and that. Freedom is worth a certain amount of existential risk and I'd rather live next door to junkies than millionaires any day. And I'm endlessly grateful. That we came of age in a place time like that. And welcome to another edition of the shape of things to come. I'm bill floor and I'm Dean Miller and our guest this week artist student teachers. Start off where everything starts off with. Let's introduce ourselves. Then Dan My teachers. Yeah. Go ahead. Base I was more comfortable from the time. I was little kid with what were considered freaks than I like drag Queens I like boys, hugh tweets, their eyebrows I wanted them to put my makeup on J. I Sing I mean going to a dead boys concert with you're sitting in the front row at CBGB's and stiff baiters. Ripping out his pubic hair throwing at you. That's disgusting. But it was amazing. On wore I play drums as teenagers. We were filming gigs for the mumps we were helping the erasers build up their sets for their shows and we've been very involved and so there was kind of this organic thing that came together. You know maybe we should maybe we can do that. You know I mean maybe we can do that. By Play Guitar. Let's say you had. School. In one hand and. Being in a band and hanging out with blondie. David Bowie and the other hand and it was impossible to do both things. Boy Do you think would happen. There'd be less school-going. Joe I buy another talk. I wanted to be a rock and roller I play guitar, and I just wanted to make wild noise. Or. Unveil. muschamp coffee you would see warhol walking around with his polaroid and handing out copies into you magazine. So this is what I thought. Every teenager did it didn't occur to me that. What an unusual environment this what? We're here sort of to talk a little bit about the band place music and give people a chance to find out what the student teachers are really because I think a lot of people in New York even though I know most of the people in the band from the New York area don't know that much about student teachers. Any. Seems to be a mystery to herself and everyone. While sometimes, that's effective. I don't know. Imagine this group of teenagers in the late seventies in new. York. City. Most of them are still in high school, a couple of recently graduated. They're obsessed with bands like television and Patti Smith the Ramones Roxy Music. Most of them come from fractured family lives and find community in the club scene. But get this in the span of six months they go from not knowing how to play instruments to headlining their favorite clubs. Then opening IGGY pop getting interviewed I'm GonNa have their favorite radio stations eighty nine point one W Nyu. How do they make that happen? This Ragtag Group of best friends lived and breathed the scene. They spent all their time together by records running fan clubs. Reading. Rock magazines. They'd go to shows together and off often get mistaken for being in a band so. One day in bills living room they decide. Why not? Let's form one. Just. kind of said that everybody everybody's all play drums and I'll play guitar. Okay. You play Bass and I said, okay. Then lawyer said well, I don't know if my voice will be good enough because she was gonNA sing. So maybe you should be from female rhythm section and then we We all hated. Wouldn't bands felt like sports teams. And with David I both being gay and Philip, and then later Joe being straight boys and then, Lauren? Laurean. Laura being the female rhythm section we really love what we did visually. I think it's more important than we have a concept an idea. I A music. Actual technical ability because we knew our instruments well enough to be able to contain the idea to an extent. But you guys can make it. I mean you think you're gonNA make it after the All of us into. Your knew we weren't musicians and none of us cared but we cared about is that we were gonNA have a blast. We were going to be cool. We were GONNA be the coolest kids and we weren't going to imitate anyway.
Whats that big bird
"Of coffee anymore. Today's story PTERODACTYL sightings. The PTERODACTYL is a flying reptile. They were thought to have died out at the end of the cassation period, but there have been sightings across north. America. Since Spanish first set foot on what today's Mexico pterodactyls were there on pictographs and discovered on the face of cliffs native. Americans. Spoke of a giant bird eight people in sketched their images on hides. But there have been a rash of sightings in modern times, the nineteen, sixty, a couple driving. Driving through California's Trinity National Forest reported seeing the so what a giant bread that they asked committed to have a wingspan of thirty feet later described it as resembling a pterodactyl may nineteen, sixty, one in New York state a businessman flying his private plane over the Hudson River valley claimed that he was buzzed by a large flying creature that he sat luck like a pterodactyl January nineteen, seventy-six Harlingen Texas Teens Jackie Davis. Tracy Lawson reported seeing a bird on the. The ground that stood five feet tall was dark in color with a ball head and face like gorillas. The sharp six inch long beak a subsequent investigation by their parents, uncovered tracks that had three toes and were eight inches across that same year. In San Antonio Texas three elementary school teachers teachers. Now saw what they described as a PTERODACTYL swooping low over their cars. As they drove. They said, it's Wingspan was between twenty and thirty feet and one of the. The teachers commented that glided through the air on huge bony wings like a bat, September nineteen, eighty, two loss. Fresno Texas, an ambulance driver named James Thomson was stopped while driving on highway one hundred by a sighting of a large bird like object flying low over the area. He described it as a black grace bird, but the rough texture. But no feathers, it had a twenty foot Wingspan Hump on the back of its head and almost no neck at all. All after consulting some books to identify the creature, he decided it most closely look like pterodactyl. There have been numerous pictures taken of flying reptiles. One such photo show six civil war union soldiers standing over a PTERODACTYL. They apparently shot down shortly after the photo was published experts, cleared it a fake however recently, that creator of the Phony Photo said, it was a replica of the real picture. He has since produced the original most recently twenty, sixteen, a man in. In the city of Corvallis Oregon says, he saw a big bird that sounded like a dinosaur, the man who provided a full name, but asked to remain anonymous told Cryptos, who just news that he works as a campus security guard. He says, he was taking out the trash in the middle of the day when the creatures startled him, it flew from above house across the street and glided back to the ground. I only saw briefly those caught off guard by. By size and the screeching sounded made a sounded like an old movie dinosaur. He described the creature was flying with a wingspan of about twenty to thirty feet of wink. The
The Most Dangerous Fruit in America
"To start our watermelon adventure, we called one of the world's great watermelon. Harry Paris he has worked on watermelon science per years as part of Israel's agricultural research. Service. Well, I think the first thing that comes to the first two syllables water right? This is a true rich table. which has a lot of water and which actually probably the first use by people of this particular natural products. Was To quench thirst I've spent summers in Israel, and it is basically watermelon paradise but that's not actually were Harry I fell in love with a watermelon it all started when his dad grew watermelons in the backyard in their home in Brooklyn in the nineteen sixties then Harry gave watermelon farming himself fifteen years old and there was a new variety called Crimson sweets that came out and plans at a few seats in the garden and Lo and behold by the fall we got one nice big sweet high quality watermelon fruit. That we grew in the backyard in Brooklyn and from then on I was just hoped. Harry was well ahead of the local war hipster curve in Brooklyn but the watermelon is neither from Brooklyn nor from Israel, in fact, its origins are a little bit of a mystery. One of the big headlines was back in the mid nineteenth century when the British explorer David Livingstone went to the southern African deserts and low and behold. It was the year in which there was more rain than average and he found a large areas just covered with wild watermelons. He's wild watermelons were hard but does the name says have water say to pound them and so on and so forth but you could squeeze the water out of them David Livingston was searching for the source of the Nile. But apparently, he was also as a side hustle looking for other sources like the source of our sweet watermelons and people thought he'd founded the wild ancestor but Livingston was wrong about the source of the Nile and as it turns out now. We know he was wrong about those wild watermelons to now that scientists can examine the DNA of melons. They found that the Kalahari desert wild melon that Livingston came upon is not the ancestor of our sweet watermelon. But DNA is just one of the tools that scientists are using to try to figure out where and when the watermelon was domesticated, you can't just use one approach. You have to use an archaeology approach you have to use clients science you have to use. Linguistics you have to go into literature some of it'll some of an ancient. And even more than that. Of course, with the latest that we know genetics and genome can assist us first of all the plant Science Livingston was at least on the right continent because there are wild watermelons of various different species all over. Africa. So the wild relatives watermelon their fruits are smaller and rounder not elongate. They have often perfectly round it small fruits the outside looks like a watermelon like little, green and white. But inside they all have this extremely bitter and usually white. Whitish pulpits azan Renner is a professor of biology at the University of Munich and she's another one of the world's watermelon expert Suzanne's as you could boil these Super Beta watermelons for jam or you could use them medicinally as kind of a purge to clean out your insides. Basically, the wild watermelon wasn't a tasty thing to eat raw at all. So where the desert watermelon comes from, there are two things that have to happen to these bitter wild melons to turn them into the watermelons. We love today to specific genetic mutations. The first one is a mutation. That switches off the production of bitchy chemicals and so this mutation occurs in nature as bad for the plan because the plant of course has this bitterness to defend itself not eaten so that the fruits would not be yeah for the plan is better to lose the bitterness but for us, it's good and we can only imagine that native people every once in a while tried one of these melons maybe for what may be hoping for something to chew on and found some that wasn't bitter Suzanne's scientists know what that mutation is and how to find it in. A melon they just to look and the second mutation is the one that turned it red inside rather than white the red colors also well understood this is well studied and it's a completely different set of teens. This is and other scientists know exactly which two mutations they're looking for. Those mutations aren't common and wild melon. So when did they happen? When were watermelons domesticated Harry says the place to look for those clues is archaeology in ancient Egyptian tombs. Archaeologists have found paintings of whole watermelons on a platter there oblong and striped watermelons today not round like the. Wild bitter ones but did those ancient Egyptian watermelons taste like the ones we eat did they have the mutations for sweetness and maybe for the red color the painting can't really tell you that. But fortunately, some other watermelon evidence has showed up in a four thousand year old Egyptian tomb complex the seeds and leaves from the tomb ended up at the q Royal Botanic Gardens in England Suzanne wanted to find out if those remains held any clues about whether the watermelon had already been domesticated by them. So she wrote to mark Nesbitt who coincidentally starred in our tonic. And who runs the economic botany collection at Q. and she asked if she could borrow a watermelon leaf from the tomb, it was in a glass box encased in a box and he opd mark opened it, and he said it hadn't been opened since eighteen seventy one or whenever singles arrived there then and her colleagues analyzed demand the leaf and I they were thrilled the watermelon leaf DNA did in fact, have the mutations that would have made the fruit sweet and read but then when you see fourteen Dating for this material that we had received for Mark Nesbitt, it turned out it was much younger than we thought it turns out the watermelon material in the two had been left there by a later visitor carbon dating showed it was from the late eighteen hundreds huge bummer.
A Teacher's Aid
"Forty four year, old Jan Carson has an unusually good memory of childhood, but then again her childhood was unusual by any standard. It started off in a typical suburb in Phoenix Arizona Mom was a teacher dad. She says was a hippie stay at home. Father who occasionally dealt pot. And he was incredibly attentive. He brushed my hair and feed me breakfast every morning. He'd read to May. Take me to the petting zoo, but you know there were always signs of problems. Her Mother Link Carson knew something was wrong when her husband James. Carson began violently threatening. Anyone who upset Him. Including her the first few times. He said it. She didn't believe him the second few times he said it, and then he got a gun. In nineteen seventy nine, when five years old, her parents divorced after a decade of marriage. Shortly after James, Carson remarried and changed his name to Michael Barone Carson. And then the problems got worse. Jen's I her father and stepmother's house is etched in her memory. There was no furniture and lamps. It was dark and there were hundred potted plants. It looked like the haunted forest and Snow White. I remember actively trying to skip this house. General remembers a particularly terrifying moment. When her stepmother came into the room and started rubbing her back. She ended up scratching her and leaving five open wounds. She was saying things to me like I'll scratch this team and out of you it was. It was horrific. You remember when someone tries is threatening to kill you. You know unharmed. Show in this way so. After that visit I got home, my mom saw wounds and she said you're never going back there. Lynn took her daughter packed to personal car in the middle of the night and hit the road spending the next four years moving from city to city. They eventually settled in orange, county California. She told her young daughter that they needed to be away from her father because he was sick I, was incredibly angry so on top of my mom, having no one that's believing her for five years on top of that. She has a five six seven year old saying I hate you. I want my daddy. Jen's life at home was tough. Her mother struggled with depression. Her Life at school wasn't much better. She was behind academically and constantly got in trouble. I didn't really feel like I. was a bad student I felt like I was a bad person that my very makeup was bad at eight years old. Yeah, during this period, I had extreme depression. At School Jen's teacher didn't recognize her depression or cries for help. Instead. She constantly reprimanded her for acting out once, saying Jen was the worst students she'd ever had. That was like just throwing a match on my gasoline. So. My behavior then got worse throughout the rest of the year. She didn't feel safe anywhere. At Home Jen would often see police officers at her door. They ask about her father. She didn't know exactly why because her mother would always send her to room. Still she heard bits and pieces and knew it wasn't good. By Third Grade Jen was preparing herself for another difficult year I went into the class and I remember putting my hair in front of my eyes, and putting my head down, and just not wanting to interact with the new teacher. But then that teacher Mrs Sylvia case did something Jen didn't expect. I just remember her on day one day to day three Sane Jenny heard. You're such a great reader. Why don't you come? Help me hold the book? That was the beginning of something new Gen learned to love books, and over the year she caught up academically Mrs case was brought her Baratz as a prize for good grades on Her spelling test. They also kept the hair out of her is. She also helped John Apply for the girl scouts, and for reduced lunch when she suspected money was tight at home which it was. But what Gen remember most of all were misses cases, sincere and specific compliments. A lot of teachers will say good job. She would say you're cursive. Letter Ams look like art. And something I've tried to do the rest of my life because I think it is one of the kindest things you can do because you're saying to another human I, see you. And icy the goodness in you.