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The Science of Policy
"We're talking about the ongoing conversation between the science community and the policy making community a conversation. The takes on added urgency amid a global pandemic Mary, Wooley as President and CEO of Research America. We heard from her earlier this season and she joins us again. Let's put Cova decide and I to talk about it because it's obviously central to our lives right now. But let's put that aside for a moment and and speak more. Generally you've been watching this intersection of science in public policy for a long time. Can you trace the progress of how well that's worked and whether we're at a good place whether we've been making the sort of linear progress that we would hope we would make I think it's been fits and starts to be honest. The reality is that science. like everything else in life exists in a context, a public context and part of that context is political and by political, I'm talking not about partisan politics but about the policies of the nation, the funding for agencies that are the relevant agencies, and of course, this is way beyond goes way broader than medical and health research. There is a public context and the public context if it's ignored by the science community are only intermittently attended to can rear up and take you by surprise and as a result with. You way skewed up and down and a radic funding policies that maybe don't seem to make sense to the science community. But sometimes, that's you know to be laid right at the feet of the science community itself for failing to pay attention and to be responsive and accountable to the public and its policymakers to think about public engagement in how they can help make sure that the public knows that sciences they're working for. Everyone when it comes to the COVID nineteen pandemic, we know that much of the science is working for everyone as you say, trying to find ways to treat the steadily virus and we have scientists around the globe were putting aside other less urgent research and collaborating as never before to battle the coronavirus. How is this effort reshaping the world research? I think Dan it's shaping up profoundly and it will never be the same again. For Finding out that we can move more quickly in science not only if we're well resourced but if we determined to work together more effectively and that is happening right now, that's a good thing. Another good thing is that the public is paying more attention. That's terrific. So there's progress in the right direction and just add one more thought right now with Kobe we're seeing science in real time like never before. And it's every day every hour every minute of the day and more people who aren't scientists are realizing that science doesn't move in a linear constant progress way three steps forward, two steps back. So we're getting used to this I think progress is being made. We'll scientific discovery isn't linear and science. As you've said, exists in public and political context policymakers listened to their constituents. Their role in thinking about science is no different in many respects than their. Role in thinking about defense or thinking about the economy and broad strokes and very limited once but they have to respond to the crisis of the moment and right now, the crisis of the moment is the pandemic and they rely on the science community as a source of information and advise and also to be responsible to the American public. So having found out that, we can cut a lot of red speed things up we're not going to go back. I. Think the People Care About finding solutions to what ails us and I don't mean just our health and science historically has provided those solutions and given a chance will continue to do so.
Wildfire Ignition is Solvable
"Right. Now, if I look out my window, I, see a very Brown's guy. It looks like it's twilight but you know it's ten o'clock in the morning and it should be a bright and sunny grew up in California I'm Californian for almost my entire life. And you know I have many graduate students in my lab at Stanford that come here from all over the place and they sort of assumed that it's normal. And I had to tell him now I mean I don't remember this ever when I was growing up I mean you'd hear about. Fires every once in a while on the on the news but it certainly in the last couple years has become a completely regular thing. So I can certainly understand your eagerness to to help solve this problem, solve ables about how you're GonNa do it what's your solvable for dealing with these fires? Many many millions of gallons of retardant. So used every year right the iconic red stuff you see being dropped from planes. And that's really only ever used reactively. So once a fire has started. Our main approach is trying to stop them before they start. Now one of the limitations that we're trying to address is if you want to go and pre treat areas where you know fires are going to start. One of the primary limitations of the current hardens that they don't stay where you put. A high wind or heavy do is enough to wash the retardants off the vegetation. So they stopped working off. So what we sought to do was to to not create a new retardant let's say 'cause we're using the same active fire retarding agent but instead tweaking the performance additives so that the retarded stays on the vegetation. Throughout the duration of the fire season. So you can spray one time in June. Let's say and have protection against fire starts. All the way through until the rainy season comes. So can you describe this stuff? What's it like if you touch it how does it feel? It's not quite a lot of people think of Jello and they think of a gel in it's not thick like that. It looks Kinda like cream really So what we developed in my lab improves the adherence. So more of what you spray actually sticks on the vegetation and it improves the durability. So it's really only once you get into the ratings season that the materials will wash away and simply biodegrade on the soil. Yeah. The evidence in I mean you know it works yes. So we did pilot scale studies to test ourselves and we tried to burn it It was actually. Kinda fun because you know we would do the experiments and and see the fire would not actually ignite even through extensive weathering. So we rain to half an inch on it and let it sit in the environment for six weeks. The treated grass, it wouldn't burn. So some of the folks that we're working with started just drawing funny faces in the grass with the with a torch because even if you took a torch to, it wouldn't ignite. Wow. Then we were able to step it up and actually do some full scale pilot studies in and treated a number of roadside segments in southern, California many of them are small but every one of these ignitions requires crews to go out and put him out. So they use a lot of resources that take a firefighter time that they could be spending doing things like controlled burns. And we reported that they were zero fires in the treated areas Eric, this targeted intervention, right? You don't need to treat the whole forest. You just go where the fires most likely to happen. Yeah. Exactly. I think that's An important misconception that I see a lot of places know we're not talking about treating the entire forest like you would with a controlled burn. We're talking about treating only right where the fires likely to start, and so if you envision a roadside where if you have a car that overheats and it pulls over into the grass, right next to the roadway or somebody throws a cigarette out of their window, it only lands right next. To the roadway, and so you only have to treat right there and what's beautiful about that is that let's say a twenty foot wide treatment protects all of the forest beyond it. Yeah and this cream that you're spraying is it is it safe for plants and trees and birds and animals and people I mean something about the look of that read stuff coming out of planes I always think I would not like to be underneath it. Yeah. So we when we were developing this, we specifically designed it to be safe. That was one of the the primary concerns because anything you're putting out in the environment, you want to be one hundred percent certain that it's safe and effective. We designed it using cellulose, adjust plant matter, and a thing called Colloidal Silica, which you can think of as Nanna sand. So it's just primarily sand and
How your personality shapes your politics with Dannagal G. Young
"I'm a political and social psychologist. I study how people understand the world. And what this means for society and for Democracy. which as it turns out quite a lot. Some. People see the world is safe and good, and this allows them to be okay with uncertainty and to take time to explore and play. Others are acutely aware of threats in their environment. So they prioritize order and predictability over openness and experimentation. In my academic research study, how these two approaches shape how we think and feel. About everything from art to politics. I also explore how political elites and partisan media use. These very different says to engender hatred and fear. And how the economics of our media system? Exploit these same divides. But after studying this, I have come away not with the sense that we're doomed to be divided. But that it's up to us to see both sets of traits as necessary in even valuable. Take, for example, two men who have been so influential in my own life. I my late husband Mike he was an artist who saw the world is safe and good. He welcomed ambiguity and play in his life. In fact, we met through Improv comedy where he taught improvisers to listen and be open. and to be comfortable, not knowing what was GONNA happen next. After, we got married and had our baby boy Mike was diagnosed with a brain tumor. And through months of hospitalizations in surgeries. I followed Mike's lead. Trying to practice being. Trying to be okay not knowing what was going to happen next. It was Mike's Tolerance for ambiguity. That allowed me to survive those months of uncertainty in that. Helped me explore new ways to rebuild my life after he died. About a year and a half after Mike passed away. I met my current husband PJ. PJ is a criminal prosecutor who sees the world as potentially good provided that threats are properly managed. He also someone who embraces order in predictability in his daily routine in the foods that he eats in his selection of wardrobe. and has vicious wit, but he's also morally very serious with a strong sense of duty and purpose. And he values tradition loyalty and family. Which is why at the age of twenty eight he did not hesitate to marry a widow, adopt her baby boy and raise him as his son. It was PJ's need for certainty and closure that brought stability to our lives. I share these two stories of Mike Pj not just because they're personal but because they illustrate two things that I have in my own research. I that are psychological traits shape how engaged with the world. And second. That both of these approaches make all of our lives possible. Tragically though. Political and economic incentives of our media environment. Seek to exploit these differences to get. US, angry to get our attention. To get. Clicks. into turn US against one another. and. It works. It works in part because these same sets of traits are related to core political and cultural beliefs. For years political psychologists have studied how psychological traits shop our political beliefs. We've conducted experiments to understand how our psychology in our politics shape how we respond to a political stimuli. In this research has shown that those people who are less concerned with threats who are tolerant ambiguity. These people tend to be more culturally and socially liberal on matters like immigration or crime or sexuality, and because they're tolerant ambiguity, they also tend to be okay with nuance in the enjoy thinking for the sake of thinking.
The Murder Rule
"Usually in our criminal legal system. In order to convict someone of a crime, there are two primary factors at play the first is. What a person does their action. The second is what that person intended to do. In Law we call what a person does. Actus Reus what is the action? And what is on a person's mind? What they intended to do is known as men's Raya. And it's the hallmark of a civilized legal system. We care about an individual's actions and we care about an individual's intent. Let me give you an example of this principle. For crime of misdemeanor theft. The prosecutor has to prove to a jury that someone took something. That's the act. With the intent to permanently deprive the rightful owner of that thing that's the intent. So. Let's say. I'm in a store to buy toothbrush. And I pick up toothbrush and I leave the store. Now, that would look like a theft. Let's say that I left the store because I got an emergency phone call from my daughter's school and there was no reception store. So I rushed outside to hear the call. Or. Let's say that I left the store because I suddenly realized that I left my wallet in the car. In both of those situations I did leave the store with the toothbrush. But I had no intent to permanently deprive the store. The prosecutor could not show that I committed a crime because I didn't intend to do so. What you do matters, it does what you do matters but a person's intent according to the law also matters and this makes perfect sense. You wouldn't want to convict somebody of a crime because of an accident and Mrs just for Misdemeanor Theft. And it makes sense because in our legal system, we say. I almost have to put parentheses around say we say that liberty is paramount. Before, we're going to let a prosecutor strip you of your rights since you away from all of your loved ones, send you away from your family, your job, your career you're calling and put you in a prison sale. They should have to prove that a person did something wrong. And meant to do something wrong. However. There is one very old relic in our criminal law. Where what a person actually does and what a person intends to do. Does not matter at all. A prosecutor in this, it blows my mind to think about this. A prosecutor can lock up someone for life. For, a murder that a person did not commit a murder that everyone knows they did not commit. A prosecutor can lock someone for life and everyone knows that they did not intend to hurt anyone. A prosecutor can tell a jury that it doesn't matter that the person didn't intend to hurt anyone. And, this rule is known as the felony murder rule. And it is incredibly problematic tens of thousands of people all over the country from coast to coast are in prison because of this one single rule right now. This rule says that if a person is committing a felony, let's say robbery. And in committing that robbery, a person gets killed. The, felony murder rule says everybody who committed the robbery can now also be held responsible for the murder. That law came from the Middle Ages in England. But. It has now been banned in every country whose legal system originally came from England. It has been abolished in Ireland. It has been abolished in Canada in India it was abolished in England in Nineteen fifty six. But it's still exist in almost every state in the United States of America,
COVID-19 Transmission is Solvable
"I wanted to star. With a really dumb obvious question, which is, can you describe to me all the ways in which you can look for the presence of virus that you would be? Well, that's not an obvious question at all. Within each virus viruses just like. Any other thing they have a genetic code, and then they have a bunch of proteins and the genetic code of a virus is Arnie, which is akin to a human's DNA, and so the same way that you could do a forensic investigation of a crime scene and use DNA defined if there was a human specific human at the crime scene, you can do a forensic investigation to look for Ra to know if there was an inside of a person so. That's one way and that's this tool that these molecular tools that we call PCR, and then there's a different way instead of using the genetic makeup and the Arna to look for the virus. In this case, you could actually look for the proteins that make up the virus and that's where these antigen tests really shine. So you can either look for the genetic code or you could look for the proteins I like to call these rapid antigen tests, transmission indicating tests. There's one other major way which is a quickly and that's to. Look for the immunological response to the virus, because humans are good at making immune response to viruses. So it's a different way and that's antibody based detection but that's I put it in a whole different category because it usually comes after infection. Yeah. So the first way looking for the aren a is the kind of gold standard that's exactly right and so if I go to the hospital and get a today, get a Cova test, the looking for giving me the using to see if I have fires in my system that's right and what's the cheapest that a PC tests could produce result that actual price of tests can be done for about six bucks maybe. Even less so it can be really cheap, but the differences, the whole infrastructure around PCR test they have to be done in labs. So you have logistics of transport you have all of the people working in the lab robots and and so generally, it really drives the cost up and as we've seen the average test costs anywhere from thirty dollars at the absolute low end up to one hundred and fifty dollars for some labs that are charging in contrast be CR, two antigen tests. How do engine chess? What do they look like? What's their cost in time profile they? They look like a pregnancy test and they work like a pregnancy test actually they can be made. A little piece of paper generally speaking. You put some of the sample whether that be some swab that's been mixed with some saline solution or saliva onto a paper strip, and it shows up with a line turns either for example, red if it's positive or blue, it's negative and those can be made in the in huge numbers. They don't require instruments they don't usually require. There's a few on the market right now that to get the. Sensitivity at the FDA wanted they have some instrumentation associated but in reality, these are used for malaria strep for all these different infections they've been around for very long time and they can be done just on a piece of paper and five minutes and they could get down to you can produce them for fractions of a dollar and they might be sold to the public or built by the government for. A dollar apiece or something along those lines. So you're you've been a the perhaps the leading public proponent public health proponent of. Using Antigen, tests much more broadly to fight this. Derek and I wanted to the first time I. Heard you give this argument you convince me about two minutes. And I still don't understand why why don't we have this system because I can imagine a world where if it's this if they're cheaper easy, then you know every kid before they went to school in the morning. Would take one of these fifty cents or one dollar tests, and if they were positive, they would say home in their negative we would know that could go to school like. If, I want to go to a restaurant, why can't I just sat stand investable the restaurant take test and wait for my response and if I'M If I'm negative I get to go to the restaurant it just strikes me as. This is a way to get going again. Why are we not doing this? Can you explain that I can I have a few theories I. mean they're not just theories. They're they're. In the middle of this. So these tests because of this whole sensitivity issue early in March or really in January the world decided that was the gold standard for these tests and I don't think and I that this will maybe come. We'll come across wrong for some people but there hasn't been enough thought place into what exactly does the PR test mean, and is it the right gold standard? The only pathway that we have to evaluate tests like this in the United States are medical diagnostic pathways there pathways designed specifically to ensure that a physician like a detective is getting all of the information they need to diagnose a sick person in front of them so it's really been. First and foremost a regulatory hurdle we have so devalued and de funded public health across our country and really across the world. That we actually didn't, we don't have a regulatory pathway to approve test whose primary objective is is one of stopping an epidemic verses one of diagnosing sick person and that has really led. That's everything up all of the companies that could be producing these these really rapid tests in the millions and millions they have been sitting on these tests trying to hone them trying to get them just a little bit better just a little bit better so that the so that they can pass FDA standards as a medical diagnostic. It's not just slowing down their approval and getting them out to the public. It's actually bottle necking the company's into creating tests that are not going to be as scalable because they're having to use more expensive reagents they're starting to put them with instruments and package them more. They have to actually become more expensive, highly manufactured tests. When in reality, they're just these little pieces of paper. That if we can do the cheap version of they can be made very fast, but they just won't get through the FDA at the moment
What if lifesaving prescriptions were affordable for all
"Hi Hugh Ted Talks Daily today a super cool idea to ensure people have access to the medicines they need to survive and thrive Kia Williams the founder of the nonprofit serum saw both a problem and a solution that exists in the pharmaceutical space and her idea link. The two together should explain in her talk from Ted Twenty twenty. Every day in this country families are forced to make impossible choices when it comes to their healthcare. Like Kimberly who said? There is time I to choose between my food and my pills. It wasn't luxury stuff because I didn't make that much. It was like, can I get shampoo or conditioner? Things you take for granted and Debbie. Who Said you put your medicine in one hand your living costs in the other. Okay. Well, what am I going to do? Am I GONNA get my medicine or am I gonNA pay my bills? Will. I can't live without my medicine but I can't live if I don't pay my bills ten thousand people die every month in this country because they don't take the medicine that they need. More people die from not taking medications than. Overdoses and car accidents combined. But you can't take medicine if you can't afford it. Today the average household spends three thousand dollars a year on medications about a third of folks who are uninsured said that they stopped taking medicine as prescribed because of cost even folks with insurance. If they make under thirty, five, thousand dollars a year half of them report skipping the medications if their insurance doesn't cover it. So there are. Million adults like Kimberly in like Debbie who are forced to make impossible choices every day. We all know that prescription drug prices are too high. In our healthcare system that makes some folks uninsured and other folks underinsured doesn't prioritize people who need access now and need medications. Now, ten million, it's a big number, but it's also a solvable number because there's also ten billion dollars of perfectly good unused medication that goes to waste. So this is an injustice onto sides people not getting the medicine that they need to survive and to thrive. In, that very same medication being sent to a medical waste incinerator to be destroyed this waste is unconscionable, but it also offers an opportunity I started serum a not for profit technology company with my co founders Adam and George. To turn discarded medications into a lifeline, we may not be able to fix all the ways in which our healthcare system is failing us, but we can fix this one. Medications come from manufacturers wholesalers who have safety stock, and when it's short dated, they destroy it. It also comes from healthcare facilities like fiddles pharmacies in nursing homes who end up with surplus when a patient stops taking medication or when they pass away. We can use this untapped source of medications to supply all ten million people who need medications, and we can do this today. Serum get surplus medications by putting recycling bins into the hundreds of facilities that have surplus they fill the been and when the boxes full serum initiates a courier pickup to pick up that medication in we handle the shipping the tracking the manifests in the tax receipt medicine donors want to donate because it's actually cheaper and easier than the highly regulated medicine destruction process. And they're strong tax incentives to actually donate. We then deliver those donated medications to people who needed a new prescription comes in in our platform matches that patient need with the inventory that's available. Our platform then generates a warehouse pick lists. The medications are picked in the prescription spills. We are building the twenty-first-century pharmacy experience that low income families deserve patients can register in under five minutes and have access to over five hundred different medications A. Stable list of medications for everything from heart disease to mental health conditions
Do Americans Trust Scientists
"So much of the public focuses on discovery and they. Scientists going to influence their life scientists. Of course, love the search does that explain maybe just a little bit of the dichotomy I use I think sometimes feel between scientists in the public. View that actually people are quite fascinated by. Approach that scientists take in they're quite curious about it I i. think many of the of the television shows, for example, in books about science or or very very attracted to people and can help bring them in to science and even become scientists themselves. I don't really take a do view of things concerning trust I think trust house to start with the scientists themselves they have to really be. Truthful about their exploration about what they discovered they have to try to be bias free and politically in free free politics and free of self-aggrandizement and just want to pursue the tree. We were President of one of the best engineering schools in the country and have been involved in education but your role at the national science. Foundation. And now your role with the science philanthropy alliance a little little. Bit More of a cheerleader with FBI. Correct way of saying some of this in terms of trying to let people understand the need and support for basic science and our society. Yeah I think you always go back to your roots in at high school. I was cheer. So I think there are definitely a large group of people who liked cheer and that's a very, very important to do, and of course, it demands a different kind of skill set but there's a step beyond cheering. That is just incredibly important to do what I call move the needle to really make things change at sociologically culturally there are many many disparities that abound and they affect science as well as every other field of endeavor and Jake. It's important for institutions like the National Science Foundation's to. All sorts of approaches to to blossom into encourage them scientific discovery come through many many different approaches. And by the way I've Kurd a number of times that Isaac Newton did his greatest most prevalent work during a pandemic. So crisis can also bring about the environment for making a great discovery. You were the chief scientist at NASA. That's pretty cool. What did you take from that role and how did that guy your thinking in the broader scientific community? I really want to be a researcher and that's it. I wanted to explore science deep league. In particular attracted to the cosmos. And Mike Goodness on. There's just some mysteries that it offers and so I was very very focused on that I didn't want anything to take me away from that and so when I was giving the invitation invitation to join NASA as its cheat scientists asked various close friends and colleagues. If it was a good idea, all my department heads around the country who knew me? said, what about idea will take you out of your research because they knew empower engaged wasn't that but then I talked to some of my female colleagues like a colleague who headed the history of science? Department. At Penn State University and my mother who obviously knew me well, if people like that said, well, you can't talk about how important it is that women. and. Underrepresented minorities go into science, and then not take the opportunity to do something about out to have a platform where you can be a role model for that when you can actually affect changes in that.
Find the Helpers with Fred Guttenberg
"Hi My friend Fred I love you so much. Can you start please by reminding listeners of your story briefly tell us about who you were before Jamie was murdered and who you've become after. Was Murdered? It was just nothing more than your. Typical Dan of two kids to teach kids as a husband. Suburban lifestyle now. This week, that's the lifestyle community that was known to be super. And secure I also was rubber at a son. Who's going through the loss of mine? Her brother Michael From cancer related to service and. He died in October two, thousand seventeen. I want to thank Mr Collins Mr Naylor putting this together. But as I sit her today, I can't help but think. What an incredible metaphor. This room is. For the entire process. That getting healthcare and benefits for nine eleven. First responders has come to. ME. A filled room. Of nine eleven first responders. And in front of me. A, nearly empty congress. So, my wife took A. Forty. Two, thousand, eighteen. Months after my family's call to the loss of micro and as a family, we've never been through anything wiped out before this kind of significant loss we were fortunate. We just all were managing to live our lives and my brother's loss was the first. My parents had outlived their son and that's the worst thing that happened to her family. Right. It should have been the most overwhelming family ever experienced except four months. Later, my daughter was hard because I sent her to school I to school at fourteen to learn to be safe to laugh to be excited about coming home on Valentine's Day for the plan. I had set for life family and didn't work out that way shooter came into school at day my slide Jesse. Thank God I still get to. But J visitor cemetery and. As only, this kind of thing had harrison was the outlet. Grandparents should alain grandchildren. It. Stops inning for me and really understood the gravity of what happened. I went into this whole new life. I don't have the same life I had before and my wife actually became depended upon me. But upon the amazing people who I got to surround myself with WHO became a part of my life or who were already a if my life and I would emission and we're going to succeed we're going to change the. Politics of country we're going to pass on safety after November third every time I hear you till the story I feel like there is something a little bit more grounded in the way in which you tell your story, and I'm wondering if it is because you had this time to write this book and really reflect you've got a book coming called find the Helpers and before we get into that I, want to note The huge amount of praise. This book is already getting new have blurbs from members of Congress actors, activists, people from across the social and political spectrum, and they're all raving about it and I don't think in my life. I've seen such hype about a book even before it is released. So what do you think it is what do you think it is about finding the helpers that makes it so universally loved and also. Tell me about the process of writing it, and if it was Cathartic for you because I think we hear. So often people that tell stories an especially stories that are so close to your being your heart people always say you know it was Cathartic and it was their -Peutic for me to write. This is that how you felt writing it such a great question because this was not the case before Jamie was killed. Afterwards. Writing became my therapy in started doing social media. You know I became very prolific on twitter and I considered people twitter became force. My way of getting things out of me and those book just took to another level being able to sit down and think about all of the relationships what they meant to me about my daughter and what hurt lost means to me and others, and what my book really got to think about is people in a very different way because you hear the same things I hear people sock opticians, sock media. And I writing my book and I couldn't come to that conclusion any of these
Why Cancel Culture Is Solvable
"It some level canceled cultural is these are arguments about language, what you are and aren't allowed to say how things are are pronounced. How did you first fall in love with the quirks in hiccups of language what drew you to this this field? I'm a linguist not for the reasons that I think many people might expect. It's not that I was especially well traveled as a child. Both of my parents spoke only English if I hear somebody speaking something other than English. I had this visceral desire to WanNa do it too like I'd like to understand what they're saying, but also I wanna be able. To, do that the first time I heard anybody speaking something other than English was brew actually I found myself thinking I am so jealous of that girl that she can talk in that way that I can't understand for me originally, it was just that they're the seven thousand different codes and I don't WanNa know only one. So I also speak several languages. Tell me what you think about English what does it do well, and what does it do poorly do we debate a certain way in? English, we do actually but I'd love to know what you think. We're oddly unfussy language about all sorts of things that other languages make you mark and pay attention to because we're language of the long written history. We have a kind of artificially preserved enormous vocabulary and that's true of any language with a long written history. English is one of them and it means that you have unnecessarily large collections of synonyms that allow you to express yourself in various. Ways, I find. English to be in. It's funny people who are into the speeches of Winston Churchill et CETERA. Think I'm crazy but I find English crude. It's fascinating we streamlined but it's other languages where I find myself just drowning in subtleties in the things that they have to say that we have to leave the context. Yeah I. Actually wonder if that isn't run reasons why English is universal language because in fact, it's pretty easy to speak bad. English doesn't doesn't require a lot of grammatical knowledge. It's that simple speak it badly quite easily, which is not true of actually most one. Yes, exactly. As a linguistic professor do how do you navigate sensitive language debates is there are different way to do it. There are certain things that you're taught. You are not supposed to say in our society. I'm just somebody who won I like to keep things tidy. I like to make a case I think really I should have been a lawyer I. Don't know if I would have been good one but that's kind of mind that I think I have and also I wanna find stuff out and I watch other people being told that they're not allowed to. Happen to me two or three times in my own academic career I. Don't think it's right and I have a hard time keeping quiet when I don't think something's right. One person said about me once the when John Gets Mad, he writes a book and that's more or less true I. I. Just can't help I want things to be better than they are on cranky. What do you think of the term canceled culture? What do you think it now means well, we're already getting beyond it in a way or at least I i. hope we can because originally the idea was that if originally by that I mean say two years ago. The idea was that if we find out something unsavory and often genuinely unsavory about some celebrity that we're supposed to flush them from our consciousness as much as possible and so that has become more extreme lately is accepted by a larger number. Of people and I think it's I could say dangerous but it's also just really unfair it's immoral and yet I, think most of us are inclined to pretend to go along with it because we're really frightened of a certain weapon that that crowd have which is that they can call you a racist or sexist. That's something that we need to renegotiate and where is the desire to cancel people coming from and you said that crowd those people who who are they in where what's their motive do you think? This is what it is. Critical race theory, what it is is people who have. Drunken an idea that battling power differential that disadvantage people is the central goal of. Being any kind of moral actor in society and that it must center what we consider intellectual increase to be. It must center what we consider art be. It must send her what we consider humor to be that that one thing must be what it's all about. The even civility goes out the window, which is not crazy. Many people say what these people have to be so mean, but you wouldn't ask. That if it was about pedophilia, nobody thinks that we should be very gentle in ejecting a pedophile from general
Interview with Brittany Packnett Cunningham
"Thank you for being here. I just have so many questions for you. You're someone who I admire everything that you're doing especially during this time. So the first question I wanna get to is you served on the Ferguson Commission as well as President Obama's Task Force on twenty first century policing. We talk all the time about how it's important to have a seat at the table. My having a scene at those tables went insights did give you about policing in America. I think one of the most important insights is that a very people who are suffering most from the injustices have to be at the center of the conversation about what the correct equitable and just version of our communities actually looks like I think from a more detailed standpoint. One of the things I really learned or rather was confirmed just how much this is really systemic issue that there are people who enter that profession because they have altruistic motives and they. Want to help their community and what they find is that they've entered a system that frankly was not built to truly serve and protect all of us equitably, and that covers up and is permissive to so many violent acts in our communities. Lastly, I think F from a policy standpoint on of the things I really learned was just how dispersed policing policy is there are over thousand police departments in the entire country and so yes, there is work that has to. Be Done at the federal level and the Department of Justice needs to take great care to pay attention to those things were. There are also a number of things that have to happen at the level of the state legislature that governor, the state Senate, and there are many many things that have to happen locally that often it is near to are appointing and hiring police chiefs that often it is local police and fire boards who are approving police union contracts that. Can Be worded in ways that are not transparent to the public and can actually subvert justice. So these are the things that we have to pay attention to at every single level, federal local and state to remember that if we are honestly truly going get to a place where we dismantle systems that do not work for us and replace them with systems that work for all of us, we have to be diligent at every single level of the police say conversation. I love how you went through just. When we're looking at elected office public office. Criminal Justice Reform, police reform it runs through so many offices and this is why people really need to pay attention to who they elect because these people really do have a strong impact on policing in America. So thank you for walking us through that certainly. So I wanna get into something that a lot of people actually dean controversy. The words defend the police. This is scary to so many people at the beginning of the movement that we've seen over the past few weeks. There wasn't a lot of support for defend the police. But over the past few weeks, we've actually seen support increase in your own words. What does it mean to defend the police and why is it important? So. What people have to understand is that defunding the police is half of the equation. It is a necessary rallying cry to provoke people's imagination and belief that there could be more. But once you move the money and you divest from traditional structures policing that have continued to carry out violence in black brown indigenous communities. You'd have to move that money and reinvest into the things that truly keep our communities safe. So the journey that Minneapolis is going through right now is a great example. If this they said, we're going to dismantle our current police department. They were led to that by not only their city council, but by the organizers activists that made such a radically imaginative future possible by. The organizers like the first black student body president at the University of Minnesota who compelled her schoolmates to push the school to disconnect and end their contract with the Minneapolis apartment followed by the case, twelve will system that did the same. So what we're seeing as Minneapolis is on this journey of reimagining reconstructing public safety in their city is, yes that is managing a police department and then it will happen in phases. I think. So often when people hear defunding the police, they get scared because immediately here kind of the chaos of Gotham without the protection of Batman and that's what we're talking about. This will have been in pieces will happen thoughtfully and most importantly, it will happen with the. Leadership of the community because the second step there is to actually gather the community and the mental health experts, the community organizers, this safety experts, the public health experts, gathering those folks together say, what are we going to design in place? Where should the money that used to go to policing go instead? So when we see a school district like La Unified, school district, one of the largest invitation where we see them say that they're going to end the practice of having police in schools that's tens of millions of dollars that can then be reinvested into different aspects of education that our young people desperately need into creating systems of restorative justice into creating systems, support, and mental health care. And counseling for young people in ensuring that, there are no more schools that have lease officers, but no counselors and mental health supports.
4 steps to ending extreme poverty
"We. Are Witness to monumental human progress. Over the past few decades expansion of the global marketplace has lifted a third of the world's population out of extreme poverty. Yet, we are also witnessing astounding failure. Our efforts to lift people up have left behind doors in the harshest forms of forty the ultra poor. What it means to be ultra poor goes beyond the monetary definition that we're all familiar with living on less than two dollars a day. It goes even beyond not having assets like livestock or land to be ultra poor means to be stripped of your dignity purpose and self worth it means living in isolation because you're a burden to your own community. It means being unable to imagine a better future for yourself and your family. By the end of two, thousand, nine, thousand, nine, hundred, about four, hundred, million people were living in ultra poverty worldwide. That's more than the populations of the United States and Canada combined. And when calamity strikes whether it's a pandemic, a natural disaster or a manmade crisis, these numbers spike astronomically higher. My Father Fuzzy Ahmed gave up a corporate career to establish BRAC here in Bangladesh in one thousand, nine, hundred, seventy, two Bangladesh was a wreck having just gone through a devastating cyclone followed by a brutal war for independence. Working with the poorest of the poor my father realized that poverty was more than the lack of income and assets. It was also a lack of hope. People were trapped in poverty because they felt their condition was immutable. Poverty to them was like the Sun and the moon something given to them by God. For Poverty Reduction programs to succeed, they would need to instill hope and self worth so that with the little sub support people could lift themselves out of poverty. Brat went onto to pioneer the graduation approach solution to ultra poverty that addresses both income poverty and the poverty of hold. The approach works primarily with women because women are the most affected by ultra poverty but also the ones most likely to pull themselves and their families out of it over a two year period, we essentially do for things. One we meet a woman's basic needs by giving her food or cash ensuring the minimum to survive. To, we move towards a decent livelihood 's by giving her an asset like livestock and training her to earn money from it three, retrain her to save budget and invest our new wealth and four we helped to integrate are socially I into groups of women like her and then into her community. Each of these elements is key to the success of the others. The real magic is the hope and sense of possibility they women develop the close mentorship they receive. Let. Me Tell you about jury. Jury was born in a remote village in northern Bangladesh. She never went to school and at the age of fifteen, she was married off to an abusive husband. He eventually abandoned her leaving her with no income and two children who are not in school and were severely malnourished with no one to turn to for help she had no hope. Join a joint brags graduation program in two, thousand and five. She received a dollar week to cowes enterprise training and the weekly visit from a mentor. She began to build her assets but most importantly, she began to imagine a better future for herself and her children. If you were to visit join us. Village today. You would find that she runs the largest general store in her area. She will proudly show you the land she bought and the house she built. Since we began this program in two thousand to two million Bangladeshi women have lifted themselves and their families out of ultra poverty. That's almost nine million people. The program which costs five hundred dollars per household runs for only two years but the impact goes well beyond that researchers at the London School of Economics found that even seven years after entering the program ninety, two percent of participants had maintained or increased their income assets and consumption.
Has Globalization Undermined the American Working Class?
"America's working class has been cheated is an assertion that has been getting a lot of currency lately are last presidential election went deep on that claim in both parties by the way and the culprit most often blamed for that. It's that monstrous five syllable word globalization, the philosophy and the practice of free trade which has been great for companies and for shareholders but has had a devastating impact. It is argued on the American working woman and. Man Well Economist do agree that in the past four decades the American working class, which we're defining tonight as people who lack a four year college degree. They have seen flat wages and a steady disappearance of good jobs. But is globalization a main reason that that's happening to those workers and for those workers is globalization entirely bad. Well, we think this has the makings of a debate. So let's have it. Yes or no to this statement globalization. has undermined. America's working. Class I'm John Donavan, and I stand between two teams of experts in this topic who argue for and against this resolution globalization has undermined America's working class as always. Our debate will go in three rounds and then our live audience here at the Saint Regis Hotel and Aspen Colorado where we are appearing in partnership with the Aspen Ideas Festival will choose the winner and as always if all goes well civil discourse, we'll. Also win a resolution once again, globalization has undermined America's Working Class Jared Bernstein you have debated with us before. So welcome back you're a senior fellow at the center on Budget and policy priorities. You were Vice President Joe. Biden's chief economist. The last time you debated with US interestingly Jason Furman who is your opponent at the other table tonight was your debate partner as a team you were formidable formidable I, almost want to use the French pronunciation. Formula, so are you planning to use your insiders knowledge of Jason's debate battles against him to very much am the way to do that with Jason is to make a lot of sports analogies because they repealing confusing. All right. Thank you and I see you detail to Aspen. You were a to aspen well I. Think the guy with the tie is the guy you want to listen to, but I'll let you decide. All right. Thanks very much. Jared Bernstein and can tell us who your partner is. This someone I've known for twenty five years she's a dear friend of mine and I consider her my mentor in this topic feely gentlemen feeling. Theo welcome to intelligence squared your president of the Economic Policy Institute. You've spent two decades as an economist for the AFL CIO, which is America's largest federation of unions. It represents some twelve point, five, million working women and men. You've spent twenty five years working on trade policy. So what got you interested in trade? Well, when I came to Washington in the early nineties I got drawn. INTO THE NAFTA debate the North American Free Trade. Agreement. And I realized pretty early on that. This was not some kind of a dry text book discussion about tariffs but it was a transnational battle over democracy good jobs, workers, rights, and regulation. So I was hooked because a lots at stake a lot is at stake. Okay. Thanks very much thelia once again, team arguing for the motion. And motion again, globalization has undermined America's working class. We have to debaters arguing against it, I Jason Firm. Welcome back to intelligence squared Jason you're a professor of the practice of economic policy at the Harvard Kennedy School you're a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, you were Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers under President Obama tonight. As we said, you're going to be debating your former colleague Jared Bernstein on the impact of globalization. So is this the first time you to have debated the globalization issue with each other jared and I agree on I'd say about ninety five percent of economic issues and my goal tonight is to bring to one hundred percent. Thanks very much Jason and can you tell us who your partner is someone I've only known for a few years and every single thing. He's ever told me I have believed James Manica Legitimate James Manyika. Welcome the first time telling squared you're a senior partner at McKinsey, and company you're the chairman of their economics research arm, the McKinsey Global Institute, your first time debating with us. But not your first debate you debated at Oxford I did you studied robotics and computers earlier in your career you were visiting scientist at NASA. So how do you go from very eclectic from robotics and space to thinking about trade policy? In American. Workers I've always been fascinated by the kinds of technologies that drive innovation and growth, but also affects what will people in the real world actually do. So when you put that together with the economy, these issues around trade and workforce become very, very important. Those are the issues that motive a great perspective to bring here and then once again, thank you. Thank you again to the team arguing against them.
What It means To Arise To The Day
"Do you know what it feels like to arise to the day. A. Rising to the day. Waking up believing that this day. Is created so you can create that's arising day a rising to the day is Opening yourself to. The journey of. The time that you have allotted in the day. Now that can be seen two ways you allot time for things that you need to do and God has a lot of time for you to get things done to create the day has been created so that you can create so that I can create. And you arise to this awareness to this awakening this understanding. Even if a small shift occurs. It's a shift nonetheless. A shift in how you approach things. You don't approach things with dread. You don't approach things with A. Pool or tug attitude, but you approach things with A. How can I be better? How can I make this time? To better myself or to better. Things that touch around me that can be things in the form of what you are responsible for. Your Children Your work. Your Business or people. And those people don't limited to the people that you know. Limiting our ability to touch others only to those who we know is a great. Great. Limitation that we place on ourselves. If we're only able to touch. Not Physically. But touch. Emotionally. Mentally spiritually those who we know. Then we're limiting ourselves our ability. Arising to the day is knowing that. Interactions are intentional even if in passing. A rising today is knowing that. You. Even with the difficulty that you see before yourself. Can Do. Arising, to the day is knowing that. The breath that you have in your body. Can Not. Be wasted. Now, what does this say for someone who may be? Sick I heard something recently. From Tabitha Brown. She's a phenomenal woman phenomenal wife phenomenal. Mother. and. Like me. She tries to bring out the purpose in each day. Now, she does this through. Many of her recipes as she tries to share her stories but something that she shared. This week touched me and I wanNA share with you. Her mom was sick. Her mom passed away thirteen years ago and her mom was sick and she had a terminal illness. And even though her mom had a terminal illness, she arose to the day each day because she said something so profound. So thought provoking. She wouldn't have changed a thing about her journey because God entrusted her with her journey. Knowing that she would maintain faith arising to the day is maintaining faith even. When our bodies say otherwise. Even when situations around us say otherwise. Even when our finances say otherwise. Even when naysayers say his I want you to rise to the day. Because it was created. So that you could create
The Decline of Local News is Solvable
"Margaret. Sullivan is the media columnist for the Washington Post and formerly the public editor of the new. York Times. Her new book is called ghosting the news local journalism and the Crisis of American democracy? I talked with her about the scale and seriousness the collapse of local news and what can be done to fix it. Or Margaret thanks for joining us on solvable and let's talk first about the dimensions of this problem. There's no question that we are losing local newspapers. I think something close to two thousand. If I read that right in your book have gone out of business in the past fifteen years and the ones that are remain aren't exactly thriving, and of course that matters a lot to us journalists says our friends that's the system we came up in. But why does this matter so much as you say in the title of your book to American Democracy. It matters because. While newspapers are certainly not the only way that people are informed about their communities in their public officials, they have been over time perhaps the key way that people get information about how their local governments are functioning and how communities have a base of. facts from which to operate they may disagree on the facts or what to do about them but they sort of have this shared substance that that makes sense to everybody. As that has dwindled away largely because of the dissolution of the underlying business model based on print advertising. Largely, people are are less informed people are less civically engaged and it. It hurts the underlying the underpinnings of of the way our society in our government is supposed to function. So it's primarily an accountability problem. Right if simply put if the press isn't watching government officials can get away with more corruption mismanagement. I think you said it exactly right Jacob. It is primarily an accountability problem but I I see another aspect to to which I just like to mention which is has nothing to do with really watchdog journalism or that accountability piece, which is that newspapers have traditionally been away that communities helped knit themselves together whether it's about coverage of concerts or restaurants or theater or interesting people or obituaries it's sort of village square for the community. That has nothing to do with whether the town council or the city council is mismanaging your tax dollars, but it does have to do with sort of cohesion within the community. So it's it's both of those things and probably a bunch of others to. But why is it important that it's news organizations versus you know bloggers or people posting smartphone videos tweeting about what's going on their town or community Weisensee. Citizen Journalism the replacement for all this. Citizen Journalism. If that's what we want to call it is is part of the solution. One of the things it can't do very well, though is publicized to the same degree that a front page headline or a big homepage treatment can from the Chicago Tribune or the Sun Times you know it's a lot easier to ignore a gadfly citizen as these folks might be seen rather than a big institution that's powerful.
What Does It Mean To Be A Vessel
"Vessel vessel vessel vessel vessel. Vessel. That's been in my brain all week vessel. What is the vessel when I thought about the word vessel, a huge vast ship came to mind. Maybe, like a navy ship, that's what I imagined. A vessel to be spins the size of multiple football fields came with sand some of the toughest waves, not always, but many of them. Right. Many of the. Ways that we've never even seen before. Roaring, huge waves. Knocking this vessel to and fro. Size a mini football fields. But then a vessel could also be. Something that's hollow us to contain a liquid. This vessel will. And I went a step farther, I'm like, okay. Well, how does that apply to me as a vessel because anything that comes to my mind I try to find. Something to root in, sink my teeth in how it applies to me because it came to me right. And this is life this game. And then I thought well a ship. In and of itself, it's parked or docked. or in the middle of the sea. Without someone at the helm, it is not really functioning going nowhere the point of ship it has a destination. Has a destination and in need someone at the helm in order to make it to the destination of is not really. In. Its operable full capacity function. So the Helmsman is necessary it's important to that large vessel. And the empty vessel. The one that holds contents is just as important. The contents of that vessel are important to the vessel. was inside. What's being carried by that vessel? And so then once I compared both I saw myself in it and hopefully as I explained, you can see yourself in both. There's a destination each of us. must reach we our vessels. God is at the helm. You might not have declared for yourself but I know it for myself and I. Hope you see it for yourself. Now, God is at the hill. And as we travel to our nation's. Waves huge waves. They can cause vessels to. Teeter. Feeling. We're going to knock over. Filling, like we're taking on too much water. But something about the mechanics of that. Our vessel. is able to withstand the storms. Is because God is at the helm. In the contents in which Each of our vessels carry are different. But as important. You're a carrier of something. Very important. And got once again has entrusted you with those contents. Believing. Bet. You will care for them. Be Diligent and using them. And making sure you don't let the wrong contents in. To disrupt. Your vessel. You're going somewhere. Going somewhere you're well on your way. Closer and closer to your destination. And you're a vessel. Necessary equipped. But you're not alone in this never think you're alone in this even with all of your mechanics of bells and whistles in which you have invested in yourself. There's one. WHO SITS AT THE HILL Of each of our vessels. In the necessity is that we check in. With. That helmsmen
Sports Strike Against Racism
"This summer athletes have taken the lead by using their platforms to stand up against police brutality. The WNBA, has consistently protested throughout the year with numerous players even sitting the season out and on August twenty, six, twenty, twenty, four years after Colin Kaepernick began his anthem protests something historic happened athletes across the board streit and refuse to play today we're discussing reactions to this incredible moment in sports. This is the not. On August Twenty Third Jacob Blake was shot seven times in the back by police in Kenosha Wisconsin where we're calling this episode on. August twenty seven twenty twenty the day after the Milwaukee Bucks and players from the NBA WNBA NFL. Major League Baseball Major League soccer and tennis champion Naomi Osaka all refused to play or practice in an unprecedented strike in response to the shooting of Jacob Blake the NBA postponed the playoffs for two days. The first time that games have been postponed in this manner since Bill Russell led a strike in one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty, one after a day of deliberation players in the. NBA. Playoff Games pending further action. You're excited I. Know You're excited for sports to return obviously, this season has been one of a kind and unprecedented in. So many ways I want to know how do you feel now the players are using their platform in this way to be honest I feel this very strange sense of excitement. I need some really tragic kind of set of circumstances but I have been feeling conflicted after NBA Games kind. Came back I had been motivated by occurrences like kyrie irving standing in solidarity with Wnba players saying like Oh actually, I'll pay your salary. If you don't feel like you can play whether it's you know a reaction to corona virus or your desire to protest how support seeing. Lebron Kinda start almost every post game interview with a demand to arrest the cops that killed Brianna. Taylor. That made me really happy Siamese. Floor of the same energy that we have tours. Justice for Briana told, even seeing black lives matter on jerseys and in the court kind of made me feel a little better. I realized yesterday that this was the inspiration really been waiting for but now I'm wondering what comes next of course, how were you reacting to everything? You know I'm not like the world's biggest sports fan I do. I am a fan of black women and so seeing the WNBA protests. Throughout this year, but especially, the summer that felt released significant. Still I've always hesitant to look to athletes during these like highly political moments just because it's not the job that they set out to do. But you know as I started to see people sharing statements aerial Atkins from the Washington mystics we're going to say, well, we need to say and people need to hear that. They don't support us I'm fine with that. At the end of the day I'm GonNa make them good anywhere that I have to it basketball. It's not. Just what it is Chris Weber's telecast if not now when Not doing a pandemic. and. Countless lives being lost if not now when that is me in tears so lucid in that moment and so real and also just seeing how so many other sports leagues join them in protests were. Teased. Happen I mean it just shows. The hate people's heart. The thing is though is that as we were starting to develop this episode today so much has changed already in that the players in the NBA have agreed to return to playing the playoff season. Later, this week I don't think that all the progress is gone but I'm wondering what what happens. Now you know thought that same whiplash like I said, I felt like this was finally the type of inspiration leadership that I've been hoping to see from such a wide body players. Leaks, cross-border. It was truly abused beautiful, and I think now we need to do more I'm hoping that that since this is now on the table, players can put more pressure on owners to. Work with the people they are most connected to some of the richest and most powerful people in this nation are in the speed dial of most NBA owners even just the day if feels effective part of I, think resuming the season was the players putting pressure on the NBA to address the social unrest we've been dealing with all summer in some ways. So they started a foundation that's dedicated to investing in black causes. They're giving hundreds of millions of dollars they've given like you know the players, some approved protest phrases that they can use. They can put black lives matter on the courts and things like that and what I liked about this moment is at the NBA players were like that's what I usually do. And that's actually still not enough. So I'm hoping that we can see continued forward motion in that way something that I enjoy in this moment was seeing the NBA take the WNBA's league they have been holding it down all your curves pressing in. So many ways the thing is, is that WNBA, players, they don't make as much money as NBA players do they have really put their necks out there for social justice speaking up. Protecting black lives in many ways, it seems in some ways that they have more to lose by doing it. You know I am maybe two degrees below cautiously optimistic. That is a lot better than cynical, which is where I was before.
Why specializing early doesn't always mean career success
"Hi. I'm Elise Hugh. And you're listening to Ted talks daily today's talk features really fascinating research that cuts us all some slack. What I mean is it turns out you can be a late bloomer in your chosen sport or skill or specialty, and it's actually better for you in a lot of ways. The talk is journalist David Epstein at Ted Ex Manchester in twenty twenty. So I'd like to talk about the development of human potential and I'd like to start with maybe the most impactful modern story of development. Many of you here have probably heard of the ten thousand dollars rule maybe you even model your own life after it. Basically, it's the idea that the become great anything takes ten thousand hours of focused practice. So. You'd better get started as early as possible. The poster child for this story is Tiger Woods. Father Famously, gave him a putter when he was seven months old at ten months, he started imitating his father's swing. At to, you can go on Youtube and see him on national television fast forward to the age of twenty one he's the greatest Golfer in the world's quintessential ten thousand dollars story. Another that features a number of bestselling books is that of the three Polgar sisters whose father decided to teach them chests in a very technical manner from a very early age and really wanted to show that with a head start and focused practice. Any child could become a genius in anything, and in fact, two of his daughters went onto become grandmaster chess players. So, when I became the Science Writer at sports illustrated magazine I got curious if this ten thousand hours rules correct then we should see that elite athletes get a headstart in so-called deliberate practice. This is coached air correction focus practice not just playing around, and in fact, when scientists study lead athletes, they see that they spend more time in deliberate practice not a big surprise. When they actually track athletes over the course of their development, the future leads actually spend less time early on in delivered practice in their eventual sport they to have what scientists call a sampling period where they try a variety of physical activities. They gain broad general skills they learned about their interests and abilities and delays specializing until later than peers who plateau at lower levels. And so when I saw that said, Gosh that doesn't really comport with the ten thousand hours rule does it. So I started to wonder about other domains that we associate with obligatory early specialization like music. Turns out the patterns often similar. Research from a world class, Music Academy, and what I want to draw your attention to is the exceptional musicians didn't start spending more time into practice than the average musicians. Until Third Instrument, they tended to have a sampling period. Even musicians we think of is famously precocious like Yo, Yo Ma he sampling period he just went through it more rapidly than most musicians do. Nonetheless, this research almost entirely ignored and much more impactful is the first page of the Book Battle Hymn of the Tiger mother where the author recounts assigning her daughter Violin. Nobody seems remember the part later in the book where her daughter turns her and says, you picked it not me and largely quits. So having seen this sort of surprising pattern in sports and music. I started to wonder about domains that affect and more people like education and economists found a natural experiment in the Higher Ed Systems of England and Scotland in the period studied, the systems were very similar except in England students had to specialize in their mid teen years to pick a specific course of study to apply tours in Scotland they could keep trying things in university if they wanted to and his question was who wins the trade off the early or the late specializes and he saw that the early specializes jump out to an income. Lead because they have more domain specific skills, the late specializes get to try more different things and when they do pick, they have better fit or what economists call match quality, and so their growth rates are faster by six years out erase that income gap. Meanwhile, the earliest specializes start quitting their career tracks in much higher numbers essentially because they were made to choose. So early that they more often made choices. So the late specializes lose in the short term and win in the long run. I think if we thought about career choice like dating, we might not pressure people to settle down quite so quickly. So this interested seeing this pattern again in exploring a developmental backgrounds of people whose work I had long admired like Duke Ellington who shunned music lessons as a kid to focus on baseball and painting and drawing or Mario Mir's economy who wasn't interested in math is a girl dreamed of becoming a novelist and went on to become the first and so far only woman to win the fields medal the most prestigious prize in the world in Math Vincent Van Gogh had five different careers, each of which he deemed his true calling before flaming out spectacularly, and in his late twenty s picked up a book called the guide to the ABC's of drawing. That worked out. Okay Claude Shannon was an electrical engineer at the University of Michigan who took a philosophy course just to fulfill a requirement and in it, he learned about a near century old system of logic or was true and false statements could be coded as ones and zeroes in solved like math problems. This led to the development of Binary Code, which underlies all of our digital computers today.
Freedom Summer: Datra Dee Dee Jackson
"Many. Of the faces that we have seen over the past few weeks leading the black lives matter movement have been those of young black women theatric DVD. Jackson is one of those dynamic women speaking truth to power as a leader, a black youth project one hundred while attending Florida International University. She became active at the height of the murder of Trayvon. Martin was led to founding the local chapter, a dream defenders at her university. Today, we chat with Yatra, how young people are seizing and owning their political power at this moment. I'm really excited to talk to you today I've been such a big fan of B. y. p.. One hundred in really excited that you were able to join us. So thank you. So I I want to talk about the fact that at such a young age you have done so much for the black community and the Black Youth Community you've done organizing as a CO founder or of the Durham Chapter of the Black Youth Project hundred supporting black mamas bail out, which is one of the favourite causes that I donate to and just so much more especially during the racial pandemic that we've been in these past few weeks. What brought you to this work? What made you wake up one day and say, okay as a young person, I have to get involved as a black young person I have to get involved. So I am from Philly or and throughout my years I was in public schools I grew single mom. Single mom household of three girls and. So grew up in inundated southwest philly end of there's many things of my experience that really informs where end today but that's not quite where I was politicized. I was in Grad School. Down in Miami Around Twenty, twelve, twenty thirteen and so I, was living in Florida. At the same time as the murder of Trayvon Martin and all of the marches in the energy that was being built up in that time and I was pretty apolitical leading up to that point and was going to a black sitting union meeting because our school where I know black people. So the black student union because that's where we were and this organization out to folks from dream, defenders averages a state based organization down in Florida Cain ended presentation on the work that they were doing and police brutality and immigration. Reform. School to prison pipeline. We're talking about these different issues in was really activated started to pay attention. To. That as an opportunity to be partners to the apartment organizations actually doing the work that was really where I started really a moment that similar to where now I love your path that you just talked about and I feel it's so important because A lot of young people you know when I talk to them, they just feel that can I just show up? Can I do it in? That's really what you did, and that's what a lot of the people involved with the. One hundred have done and I would love for you to talk a little bit more about the work that you're doing. In particular I'm a fan of the safe. We save campaign, which is something that I also think is a very timely conversation that we need to have in this country. Yes. So she said we save is one hundred national campaign It's our transformative moving campaign to end gender-based violence against like women. Like girls in black gender, non conforming people especially comes. In there is more origin even how we got to deciding orange she sees as national as I national campaign we had this huge visibility of black boys and black men that were being murdered brutalized by the police It was carrying this very long history erasure, black women, black girls, an our stories in the way that we have been brutalized by the police, and so we wiping one hundred among many other organizations really uplifted. Hashtag say her name. As a demand to also remember the stories of black women and black girls be harmed on a regular basis by the police and really pushing a bit of an intervention into the visibility of who stories are being told. And so we help these different events honoring black women and black girls who stories were not being pushed to the front and also talked about the a specific nature of black women in the way that the system harms us that doesn't that doesn't necessarily apply to black men in black police in. So we've been pushing. On, lifting up story of Ricky Boyd Renisha McBride. Happens Melissa Alexander. In just a number of Ions Stanley Jones might hall that list goes on online. Envy making sure that that this was also part of this time. The stories of black women grows they're are always forgotten
Gratitude Over Attitude
"You Oil and water don't mix. If you. Put water into a glass. And then you proceeded to pour oil into that same glass depending on the high in which you poured it the pressure. Would allow that oil to go down to the bottom of the glass and then rise backup separate itself. They don't mix if you made salad dressing homemade, you have your base oil, you season it with whatever and you add additional ingredients. But if you add it water, it would totally destroy that salad dressing recipe. That's the same way. Attitude. In the negative sense does not mix with gratitude. A bad attitude creates negative perspective negative outlook negative thoughts, negative feeling negative emotions. Gratitude on the other hand. Is a heart of Thanksgiving a heart of. Peace a heart of positive perspective the two don't jail together. They essentially cancel one another out too much of a bad attitude will nullify gratitude. In many cases, it will be non-existent. You may know or may even be person who has somewhat of a crummy attitude. I've been there. My outlook was wrong. Did I know it? I felt it but didn't totally know what I couldn't pinpoint what was wrong. So many emotions bottled up totally changed my perspective and essentially created a bad attitude. But now posture of gratitude is what I diligently pursued each day. To. Be Thankful to be grateful is impossible to fester in having a bad attitude. In a bad attitude doesn't mean you're mean. A bad attitude doesn't mean that you're a bad person. Bad attitude. Definitely. D. Fluency. Your perspective you're out look. which influences your thoughts. So I, challenge you today and for the rest of this week. To lead with a heart of gratitude find something to be thankful for yes. The Times are hard but there's something. To be, thankful for. And if you find yourself inundated in social media, if you find yourself inundated in the news is so much negativity which will totally damping your attitude and you will find yourself. regressing further. Find something to be thankful for. A posture of gratitude. And that way. No matter. The high in which the world. Pours. Negative perspective. Negative News. Chaos In my sink to the bottom of that glass. But it will separate itself. From you when you maintain. A heart of gratitude because there's so much to be thankful for.
Treasures Looted in War
"So. Can you tell me what cultural heritage is and why it's important? Well. Cultural Heritage is essentially what represents the shared common history that a group of people might have and it can be something very specific as pertaining to single group of people a country, a region, or it could be a worldwide issue. My name is allows Lauzon I may professor of Middle East history not apology at Shawnee State University in Ohio. Cultural artifact top caught of your heritage. So if we're thinking of post cultural heritage, you're thinking of the remains left by ancient peoples, civilizations et Cetera, and these can be archaeological sites, archaeological monuments, and also artifacts left behind an if I can be something as simple as a stone tool, a sickle, a mortar and pestle that's used to produce food to something extremely elaborate, intricate and very, very beautiful. So, how big of a problem is the looting of art and Cultural Heritage of cultural artifacts. Looting is a huge problem, but it's also important to point that right away that it's not a new problem, it's a problem as all this human history itself. As long as we have had tombs, we've had tomb raiders as long as there have been civilizations. You know they're spent an army waiting on the next hill to come in and plunder them. We've seen throughout history that culture has always been a weapon of war. I Am Test Davis, and I'm executive director of the antiquated coalition and not for profit organization in Washington who. Starts in places like war-torn Cambodia, war-torn Cypress, or torn Iraq, or Yemen, or Libya the list goes on and on. And this is funding conflict. It is funding terrorism and it certainly funding crime around the world, which is why everyone should care about it. Regardless of whether they're interested in culture arts for preservation. One. Problem that everyone has faced who's working in this area as that so many view this as a white collar victimless crime, and that's if they've you at a crime at all, that's not the case it might end up a white collar crime at the end, but it doesn't start that way and these are cultural objects and they really run the gamut from those fatter looted from archaeological sites or. From museums or other collections and war zones, and then trafficked by armed groups either to finance the hostilities or sometimes by individuals to exploit them for personal gain from the perspective of an archaeologist, a historian I, you know when artifacts removed from its context we lose priceless history that were never going to get back again many of these are sacred objects that were never meant to be bought and sold. They are pieces that were you know hacked off of a Hindu temple or Buddha shrine they're not meant to be commodities and many of sacred places there still sacred places. And when object is taken from them it's as if it's destroyed because you know that villager in that village never going to see it again. And you know it matters a great deal to these communities. When an artifact is improperly removed from its resting place, the damage can't be undone. The losses are devastating. So what's driving the looting? Areas like the Middle East are extremely rich in cultural heritage, every Syrian lives either on top of large logical site right next door to knock logical side or within a stones throw of an archaeological site. Now you put stress you put a conflict you put a situation where people lose their livelihoods and they will turn to looting and so much in fact of the looting that we see today in conflict countries like Syria likely. Be Like Yemen is very much associated with what we referred to a subsistence looting people will turn to loot in order to survive to make ends meet to try and find additional source of income, and suddenly there is a long established history as well of criminal elements, Mafias, gangs, or corrupt officials in many of these countries. So you find that added factory making looting lucrative, but also highly destructive as we see when it's completely uncontrolled.
One, Two Step!
"A couple of weeks ago our eleven month old started walking. This process of an infant going from crawling cruising to walking never gets old to me. To see a baby, decide to one day, stand and take that first step has to be a little intimidating right but something within them compels them that they can't. In leaps and bounds of growth and progression seems to happen in a blink of an eye. Saying. With. Our daughter. The first day she took steps to us as we sit on the floor. Getting down to her level gave her competence in a destination in point. To be celebrated after a few steps was encouragement enough to take more and she did. She stood up. Gathered herself one. To step fall up again the next day. One to step, want to upstart steps fall. And then by day five, she had her footing onto her and now more assertive about navigating our home going from room to room. She went from stumbling to stepping over things in around them and even now more assertive enough to look over her shoulder as she continues walking forward. Her confidence is way up. There yesterday on the Porch of my grandmother's House I, put her down expecting her to walk. Instead she simply stood there. I encouraged her me because I knew she was capable. But. Instead she stood her ground and didn't budge. Tiana wanted to assess and assert her self. He wanted to see the he was s confident walking in this new environment as she is in our home. And after several minutes, she decided to put one foot in front of the other. She knew her steps were the saying. And she walked. You may be walking into Unfamiliar Territory Yourself. But let this be encouragement that your steps are guided and you are capable. Your steps are the same. The environment may be different. Assess it. That's fine. Look around make mental notes. Get your game plan planning your mind of what you gotta do. and. Then just like Tiana in all babies even as we went through the same progression one step in front of the other in notes, you can do it. You're capable.
Newt Minow on the Presidential Debates
"Hi everybody I'm John Donvan and this is intelligence squared US part of our discourse disruptor series and what we're going to be focusing on. Our the coming presidential debates they are coming sort of starting September twenty-ninth, the first of three. And of course, because everything's different this year, the debates are going to feel different almost certainly going to be. In some fashion remote, maybe the debaters, the candidates won't even be in the same place. There's only going to be one moderator. We're not gonNA live audience because you can't have that many people in one space in this dangerous time. Also what we have going on as a conversation simultaneously with which is focused on, maybe we shouldn't have debates maybe it's time to wrap up that whole institution and go back to a time of no debates. And when I say go back did you know that for most of American history this institution that we know is the debates did not exist that for most of our history, there were no debates and did you know that once we started having debates that in the first series, there was a remote debate the candidates were not in the same place and there was no live audience. And there was only one moderator. So maybe things are circling back. There's a lot of history here and we are interested in that because. At intelligence squared, we are very interested in history and we are also very very interested in debates. So that's what we want to focus on and we want to focus. In this case of discourse disrupters with an excellent source of information about the past and the present and potentially the future, and that is a gentleman named Newton Minot and Newton Minnow is an old friend of intelligence squared us and he's also known as the father of American presidential debates and we'll talk a little bit about why that is. But first, let's bring Newt Minnow into the conversation newt. Thank you so much for for joining us. It's really a pleasure to be back in communication with you. John I. LOOK FORWARD TO I. Admire your work or the intelligence squared very very much. Well, thank you. Can I ask before we start everything else I find it interesting that for folks who don't know you have lived through some very, very disruptive times and this one in your nineties a comes at the after a long series of other adventures. I mean, you have lived through I, think twenty three presidential elections. At this point, you have seen twelve cycles of the debates that we're GONNA be talking about. You lived through the major disruption called World War to. Use served overseas you went into politics You're an aide to ally Stevenson who ran for president does the Democratic nominee twice in the nineteen fifties. So you saw two elections then you joined John Kennedy's administration and you saw the trauma of his assassination and then you were very close friends with Robert Kennedy and you saw his assassination and lived through that and and now this. Just just to take a moment is, is this disruption different in dramatically in kind from all of the others you've seen so far? Well, I lived through all that, but then I had another. Exposure to politics with Obama, the because Michelle worked for our firm and and Barack came to be a summer associate and they fell in love and so we got. So we had another round politics with with with the OBAMAS. About that but all throughout, I would say the last fifty years of this you have been intersecting with this institution that we call the presidential debates take us back to nineteen, fifty, nine, nineteen, sixty, where as an aide to at least Stevenson. You actually were involved in the idea of pushing forward the idea that there there. He did not get to take part in that kind of debate but was interested in enemies interested because you are suggesting it. You have a very strong faith in the idea of technology. To be a force for good and for communication and you saw television as this, you're right as this big thing happening in the sixties. Well, it actually was in the fifties in when. In in the fifty six. Presidential, election. The incumbent President President Eisenhower. Having a heart attack. And there was a big question whether he would be able to run again. And I suggested to adly that instead of the candidates. Rushing. All over the country and speaking crowds that that. Now, we have television which reached every home. And that instead of traditional debate that. There'd be a series of joint appearances or debates between the presidential candidates. As they considered that his advisors thought it was a gimmick and it was he never suggested it. The Federal Communications Act when it was originally passed during the new deal. Required equal time for political candidates. The law said section three fifteen FA broadcaster gives or sells time to one candidate. At must give ourselves time to the opponent on the same basis. As a result that was interpreted by the Federal Communications Commission to mean any use of the air by a candidate including being in a news program. So the broadcasters were pressing to get news programs exempt. From the equal time requirement and they finally succeeded in the late fifties. But debates were not regarded as a news program.
Why I took my Instagram & Twitter accounts private
"Before the pandemic I would I would always crack up because I could be on the train you know now. During. A pandemic it's is horrible here in New York I I don't take the train. I. Hardly go outside and when I do I, have a mask on. So people people rarely recognize me although I have been out even with a mask and a hat and people will come up which is always weird during the pandemic say are you Shaun. King. But before the pandemic could be on the train any day and I would take the train every single day and People would come up to me and they wouldn't say are you Shaun King they wouldn't say. Are you are you that are you that writer? Are you that activists organizer? Deer run the you know real justice. Grassroots. Law. They say. Are you the guy from instagram. And I would always be so surprised because. When I wake up in the morning. That's not how I see myself. I don't see myself as a damn social media celebrity. A social media as a tool and I always have like if you go all the way back to facebook and AOL even I've been using mass emails literally for over. Twenty years. You know I was I was on facebook when I was a student. I was Saban on facebook even even that is getting for over fifteen years. I've I've been on one of the first million people on twitter when it was just a a group of nerds and Ashton Kutcher and Larry King And So I've been using social media for a long time in is funny when people ask me. Are you that guy from instagram because I'm actually super late to instagram. I may have opened up an account early but I I really didn't use it like I use it now. Until way after. When I wished I really did And And so I'm always surprised by it, but it's a it's a platform that I use in an for years. I would even when I was a I was the senior justice writer at the new. York Daily News I was riding sometimes two and three articles a day every single day. And people who are all over New York would come up to me and say, Hey, sean, our each articles they will say something that really surprised me. They will say. Hey Sean I get all of my news from you. From your instagram page I'm like. Oh, my hold on. I'm the senior justice writer. At one of the local newspapers and busting my butt every single day and everywhere I would go people with a everything I learned about injustice I learned from you. On, your instagram. And and eventually, instead of being frustrated by it, I leaned into it and say, wow, this is a place that I. This is a tool that I need to us to be able to inform people in and and inspire them and point them in a in a certain direction. and. The more I use the tool. To organize, people to inform. To rally, US around causes rallies around campaigns justice change. The more I did that. The more the hate grew. The death threats grew. The spam grew and I brought in and outside secure what I have security I'm I'm recording this now from podcast studio in our house because our offices are closed. We. Have Security here at the house and we also have a cyber security firm and because so many of the death threats that we get come from online. And what we found was that. It appears multiple corporations. Are Funding. It looks like multiple different initiatives. To not only spread misinformation. And lies and spam on my page, but to flood everything that I do. With lies about who I am lies about the work that I do lies about my family Sometimes it's blatant misinformation about my perspectives or views. and. It wasn't by the the dozens or hundreds by the thousands on some days over ten thousand comments of blatant misinformation. I'm not talking about people with. Not Talking about real people with real critiques. But accounts that were created to flood everything that I do with blatant misinformation.
Stop dancing to the sound of your oppression | Madame Gandhi
"It's Ted talks daily I'm Elise Hugh News it carries tremendous power to connect us to ourselves and one another but only a tiny percentage of music producers identify as women which means the songs turn up in our cars or in our ear buds can end up spreading harmful ideas about women. In her Ted Twenty Twenty Talk Madame. Gandhi sheriff's an alternative track. It features something refreshing. So, often I'll take a fitness class or go to a music venue. Or really anywhere that plays music in the background and I'll find myself loving the rhythms and the maladies and the beats. And then I take a second to listen to the lyrics lyrics that, for example, place us in a position of subservience that we would never tolerate in any other context and I am Aghast at the degree to which we normalize sexism in our culture I listen this music and I'm like. I don't want to have to turn up to the sound of my own oppression you know music. Is One of the most powerful forms of communication. Because it has the potential to either uplift or oppress. Music caters to the emotions music caters to the soul music opens up our soul. It opens up our channels to receive information about somebody else's walk of life to inform our own roles, and while I have no problem with male fantasy. What I do have a problem with, is that according to a recent study only two point six percent of all music producers identify as women that means an even smaller percentage identify as trans or gender non? Conforming. And what does this matter? Because if we don't own and control our own narrative. Somebody, else will tell our stories for us and they will get it wrong perpetuating the very myths that hold us back and I'm here to tell other people how to make their music. But I am here to provide an design the alternative. One Strategy I take in my music. Is Making up lifting energetic progressive global beats. And placing lyrics on top of them that genuinely described my life's experiences without contributing the oppression of anybody else. It's funny because it's the same reason as to why we excuse so many problematic lyrics it's because we love how beats make us feel. An example of this is my song topnotch turn up. Off My phone notification. So why have more time no bubbles to trouble clear state of mind. One thing the no. I'm not here to please hair tied up properly what time is not your property when I'm productive like my own. Give, grow room, breathe basic lights and her liberty free from insecurity the world projecting onto me please not trouble me. When I am focused the future is already know this fighting against the corruption. Let's go to turn up in my top is one I I wrote this. Not. I want to keep making sex positive beautiful music about joy and freedom. I want us to embrace our own pleasure just as much as we embrace our own pain I want us to celebrate the authentic nuanced multidimensional aspects of our human existence. Rather, than perform false narratives of degrading sexuality in order to feel accepted or loved and another strategy that I take in my music, it's a combat. The misogyny that exists on the Airways is to visually depict the very word I wish we lived in in the music video for my song. See me through which is like A. Queer electronic arm song I cast of my dear friends, Anya and diva to play the role of the lovers because they're married in real life. But what you don't know is that they also behind the camera consenting directing the entire video. Music should be safe and accessible for all to experience. It's not about losing the sex of or swags that music has it's about writing messages that infused tenderness and positivity into music that motivates US and challenges us. And while we musicians absolutely have the responsibility to make music that isn't disempowering the consumers can be part of the change to firstly we get to choose which songs we WANNA. Mute and which song you WANNA turn louder. We get to see I respect myself enough to say I don't want to listen to this and I don't want this to be in anybody else's space either. Secondly we can simply ask ourselves does this music or this message contributes to the oppression of somebody else why am I tolerate eating and finally we can all be choosing to make playlists or DJ music that provides the right vibe or mood that we're looking for in that moment without the problematic messaging. Why does this matter because it's teaching? Algorithms are streaming systems in our world exactly what it is that we do want to listen to. Creating long-term. And a feedback mechanism that the entire industry. This is not a message. For, just a small group of people, this is a message that affects everybody because when we protect and liberate our most vulnerable genders we liberate everybody.