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Welcome Shandra Thick. You must be here all right so I would like to ask you about what you do. Junior current research on. Maybe about a little bit about your background as well. Yeah so I've been doing engineering. Basically my whole scientific career so I did my PhD on Singer. Nicholas which is kind of like the grandfather of Christopher Gas Ninety Will Matthew Portas lab and so we were at the time just doing protein engineering trying to get zinc finger. Proteins NUCLEAR ACES ACTUALLY. Cut some specific site in the genome. And it's sad thing now but I spent five years basically making a pair of glasses that gop so very exciting at the time but it really became outdated and so then after graduate school. I went directly into industry. I worked for Sigma Aldrich on their composers of technology. Where we're doing the offense and it was exciting time in genome editing. Because for me especially because I had been doing protein engineering and then I was able to go to sigma and they would give us the proteins and we actually do genome editing for the first time really. I was able to like okay. I want to make this point mutation. How do we do it? And we were able to do. Some of the first different types of editing so like with food chain Chen we published a paper. Where using singles trying to all go donors. Almost everybody uses now. We were one of the first to do that. We can do with high efficiency losing figuring places and so then in two thousand twelve so pre crisper still. I decided that I wanted to start. Asia resource at the Times inferior increases. Were so expensive. That people weren't really able to access them especially in academic so I think the Times in cases where like twenty five thousand dollars just to plasmids so you couldn't actually do your editing editing to get yoursel- liner animal model. So it was frustrating to me is like this is game changing technology. People people need access to this. This is going to change science as we know it and so I actually went to Washington University and I put the idea of starting to share resources. Said you know. People don't want to become genome engineering experts. They want their cell line. They WanNa make do a screen. They want their animal model. They WANNA continue asking the questions that they are experts and they just want the tool for the most part. So let's start a resource. Let's be the genome engineering. Experts will help other people expedite science at Wash U. in and around the world and so we started that it's called the engineering IPSEC center. It's still going strong G. I see there and then in two thousand seventeen. I got a call from Saint Jude. And they were like. Hey we want to start something like what you're doing that Wash U. as I said no I'm not interested at the time I was actually six months pregnant with my second child. I'm had started This core the see from there was like my first child. Not My biology child. Something that I cared about the people and what we were doing so it was really not very interested in. They said we'll consult for us in How to get this thing going and short story long. I guess I ended up moving to Saint. You'd because it's kind of a really special place to do research as like a magic fairy tale land to do research especially for a shared resource so we actually given dedicated. Rnd Time and we're institutionally subsidized and so on most Groups Shared resources pay their own way so basically the services that they provide pay their salaries paid for the reagents that they're using but at Saint Jude. They say no. We're GONNA guarantee your salaries we're gonNA give you money to actually do the science that you need to do to help everybody at Saint Jude. So you don't have to worry about that. Just do good science. So that's very freeing. And then the ability to have a dedicated are indeed budget. So we're like okay. We're going to not only do genome editing. For other people were GONNA add back to the field and and keep at the forefront of it so I know that was a really long answer five. That's how backgrounds and doing a lot of genome editing. The events Talen crisper over the last fifteen years or so. That's great. Could you tell us about a couple of your research projects that you have gone? Yeah so we do a lot of things to improve efficiency. We have some ideas about how to get longer inserts and two so one of the things that's really hard crisper is when you're trying to knock something in fairly easy to do something. Small appoint mutation or five tag but it gets more difficult as the insert increases so Rachel Levin in the lab. She's working on how to get longer inserts and increasing their overall rates of HDR something. Saint Peter's in the lab is working on some strategies for enriching the donor concentration in the nucleus. And I think one of the most exciting things that we're working on is a cure sickle cell initiative basically. Where they're you know. Saint Jude. It's a research hospital. We actually have our large sickle cell population in Memphis. I think there's about eight hundred sickle cell patients that we see at Saint Jude. And so send you actually partnered with several other groups not only at Saint Jude but also outside of Saint Jude. So we basically worked towards making therapeutic for sickle cell disease and Mitch Weiss Option Darsi and myself from Saint Jude Consortium. And so we're we're really looking forward. Hopefully going to a therapeutic In the coming years and so that's why the more exciting things that we're doing this more closely related to the Translational medicine wonder. How can you tell us a little bit about just different technologies age with Chris? Frightening so you tried like classmates. How did you come across it? The goers that Rene has ever feel y'all so we actually remain your own guide. Ernie's for five years. We WOULD MOSTLY DO PLASMA. Cloning where we played together you cut the backbone with type. Two S restrictions. I'm basically pop them in like into the planet and that works but it takes probably like four hours of hands on time ish or of about three to five days and so whenever we saw that you could do synthetic guides I guess the limitation was people were able to synthesize the long Arnaiz right. So I think that that's where something kind of burst on the scene and so that we saw that was attractive to us but we needed to be able to do it quickly right so we can make these platforms fairly quickly. Do also do. Ib Tea and make that fairly quickly. The synthetics at the time you know there are companies that were doing it but it was very expensive. You get quite a lot and we don't really need a lot. We have a lot of smaller projects that we're doing. It took too long for us right. So we're trying to make cell lines for folks. We're trying to make animal models for folks so we don't have to wait a month to get the guide so that's why we were making them ourselves so so they go came on the scene. I think we started. We made our first order to go in October. Two Thousand Seventeen. Basically gave us a quick turnaround time. I think we were like Beta testing small to smaller scale early on and so from then. I guess this history of doing this. Cloning bacterial colonies and doing many. Perhaps you're able to do make more cell lines and made more animal models and do more research. Christopher is a relatively young technology but it's made a pretty big impact as you've mentioned already. What do you think the next five years will look like in? Where do you think the field is heading? That's it's an interesting question. I guess there's two or three or four different areas that you think about I think about basic science and experimental biology. How can we do things more efficiently to make cell lines that people can understand biological processes or ask for biological question? So I'm usually thinking about research purposes. I think it's only getting faster. More efficient and cheaper which is really democratizing research. A lot of different ways I think crisper has been probably the biggest discovery understanding how to do crisper since like I think it will science face a science as much. Pr Has Changed Science. Maybe more you think about therapeutics there'd be trial we're going on with Christopher Pasadena. Think people starting with blood stuff because they can get to the stem cells in their starting with is stuff because they can get to the right cells so I think one of the biggest limitation to Crisper as far as there is delivery. How do you get it to the right cells So I think that's a limitation? I don't know I guess I would really say the sky's the limit just the ability to be able to go into complex genome and make precise modifications huge. I think we're only going to get better S. nine in all the variants or the logs. Pretty darn good. We worry about off targets for research purposes. Were not outright about it. Because you know. We're studying a question for their buicks really important. But we've made such big advances since you think about two thousand twelve two thousand thirteen. It's just it's a whirlwind and you think about how you know. I think the offense really paved the way. But you know the offense where we use a million tells like nineteen ninety nine two thousand three but took two thousand three two thousand ten before we even Pat Talents and then new talents has a very short heyday. And then Chris Brazil Blown on the scene. I think there's huge diagnostics agriculture therapeutics. It's just it's kind of unlimited possibilities so I think we'll see in the next few years and we're seeing now. A lot of ethical questions people are asking. What should we do because we can do a lot of things? But what should we do? I think that that's one of the things that people will be discussing over the next few years