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Hello and welcome to the political history of the United added States episode two point one. The quakers welcome back to the political history. Three of the United States less than we focused our efforts on the colonial origin story. We examined the reasons why the English were seeking to form North American colonies. The first settlers were generally what kind of face they met this season. We are coming into a much different situation. The colonies are more stable. They're growing in life though still far from easy is far less treacherous than let's say Jamestown in sixteen o nine before we go any further. I want to take just a moment to welcome any new listeners listeners. Who are making this their first episode for those of you who fall into this camp? I want to advise you that this would be a good place to pause this episode and go back now. Of course. Yeah I would encourage you to listen to all thirty two episodes of season however if that just isn't what you're looking for at least checkout episodes one point thirty one and one point thirty two which are season in review during those episodes I give an overview of the things we have talked about and discussed the major themes that came up throughout the course source of the first season. It should help. Make sure that you're caught up with all the things that we will be discussing this season. I also want to mention before we move any further that I have made a couple of changes. Take the audio setup. Now the good news is that with sometime. I do think the audio start Saudi la better. The problem however is that I'm learning how to use all of this new equipment on the fly. Well I believe that over the next few episodes you will start to notice incremental improvements. Please be aware that there may be the occasional audio audio gaffe and I am working on it. If the first season of the show was about the con- he's been established and moving towards stability. This season is going to be starkly. Starkly different the period following the restoration of the Stuart Monarchy in the sixteen sixty s up until the glorious revolution is a period of great turmoil in English. North America America we are going to see. Colonial revolts against the corrupt government in Virginia. During bigots rebellion we are going to look at King Philip's war Massachusetts and the long term consequences of that war we will look at the increasing fears attempts to get control of Massachusetts as the colony becomes dangerously. Asleep independent this period of uprisings is going to lead to the question that is going to come up from time to time. What is the role of the North American colonies in the greater English Empire? This question is going to become a core concern for several generations and will ultimately be a question being asked based on the eve of the American revolution beyond the colony's experiencing serious and often violent growing pains the colonies are going to continue to grow and change during during the season. We are going to see new. Connie sprout up specifically in Carolina in Pennsylvania to the North New Netherland is going to get captured by the English this season. AH WE'LL BECOME NEW YORK. All of this is going on under the backdrop of increasing tension in the colonies as well as back home in England. We spent much of last season looking at the different groups that emerged in came to form the American colonies this week to start off the brand new season. We are going to do you. Something radical and look at a group of people who came over to the American colonies and became part of the fabric of colonial America. Okay so we are not not really going to be doing anything much different today than what we did. All of last season the new group that we are going to introduce today which you probably figured out from the episode title. Real are the quakers just as the puritans came to define life New England. The quakers are going to help define the story of the middle colonies and their experience so without further ado. Let's dive into the quakers. The first question that we must answer is what. The heck is a quaker following the end of the English English civil war. There was a set in proliferation of religious groups. Throughout England the sudden appearance of different religious groups was the result of William Laud being removed from power our and the puritans in parliament taking control of England drain the years of Charles. The first personal rule religious persecution in England was high well the puritans bore or the brunt of it largely due to their prominence inside of parliament there were other groups that existed on the fringe of society not wanting to come into the open due to the very a real risk of persecution. They largely remained small and quiet drain the years before the English civil wars following the civil wars however much of the immediate risk of persecution persecution diminished which allow these various groups to emerge from the shadows. This isn't necessarily to say that. They found themselves welcomed with open arms. The puritans now control the government however will they still found themselves generally disliked and not trusted by those empower persecution. At least I was less of a concern. Keep in mind though that we are talking about ingle improper right now and not the American colonies more on that later today day. Among these new religious leaders was a young man from lyster. Shire England named George Fox Board in Sixteen Twenty four bucks grew up up any world dominated by religious persecution political strife and eventually civil war Leicester Shire itself was a heavily puritan part of England during during this era something that undoubtedly affected young Fox. George Fox would have been a child throughout much of the persecution being carried out by laude and would have been a teenager and young adult during the civil wars with this new found freedom box felt free to pursue his own particular brand of protestantism his Originally known as the Religious Society of friends which would become better known as the quakers now there are several versions out there of Y. Hey this group ended up being called the quakers however the most repeated version I kept coming across. Is that the followers of the Religious Society of friends would often uncontrollably ably shake during their religious experiences and that the term quakers is referring to that regardless of the origins of the term the quakers were one of numerous new religious sects spreading throughout England. The quakers were in extreme version of the Protestants and in some key ways held much more in common with the periods or example. Both groups were desperately see name. More pure form of Christianity both wanted to do away with with the perceived decadence of the Catholic Church especially as they saw its influence in the Anglican Church. However before you go thinking that the quakers and the puritans make good bedfellows there is a very key difference that is going to all but ensured that the two groups would remain on very different sides of the fence the periods? If you recall believed that predetermination meant that God had selected those to be saved from birth. Nothing you could do on earth could change that outcome quakers on the any other hand believed that everybody could be saved as people all possess the inner light of God. quakers believed that the pathway to salvation was through an individual's Joel's own goodness and the communal prayer of the greater group. They did not therefore believe in the importance of any kind of formal priesthood Bazzi Churches or even the Bible after all who needs the Bible when they already possess the inner light of God now if the periods had been NCAA more pure version of the church this is like tenfold pass. That quakers viewed any kind of formal religious strictures as being not only a necessary but directly contrary to their own practices quakers with their belief in their own. Goodness being paramount refused to kill people even in self defense as that detracted directly from their goodness going a step further. They also refuse to pay taxes for the communal defense as they wanted nothing to to do with the death of another. Furthermore they wouldn't take an oath on a Bible as it made for the insinuation that when they were not swearing on the Bible that they were lying and just to make things so much easier for their eventual persecutors. They went around wearing all black so they were easy to identify. These beliefs were shocking to just about everybody outside of their congregation and made the quakers ripe targets for persecution. The puritans were always wanting a more simple apple church brief from the decades. They saw the roaming church however abandoning texts like the Bible. How much of the legal system in Massachusetts was based based on Biblical Law? And here's a group that is just going to bypass that altogether this is all very direct affront to everything that they were trying to do in new eland when winthrop wrote about a city on the hill. A deviation like the quakers were certainly not part of the equation now normally. This is where I would dive of into the reasons about why the quakers decided to come to colonial America. But I'm going to hold off on that for now. I want to continue to explore the early relationship between the quakers and the puritans because I think it tells us a whole lot more about the situation in the early years of New England plus the number of quakers is going to remain relatively relatively low initially down the road a bit when we come to William Penn anymore substantial immigration into Pennsylvania. We will discuss the reasons behind the immigration Lee initial settlement of quakers in the colonial United States was in Massachusetts. We are going to focus on this today and discussed the relationship between those early early quakers and the members of the Bay Colony Church. This relationship is going to prove to be a very good glimpse into the religious situation in New England and is ultimately going going to help lay the foundation for many of the struggles that we're going to see happen in New England over the next fifty years if you listened at all last season when you know that Massachusetts is not really known for its religious freedom and expression and that it is a trend. That is not going to improve any time soon soon. You things better illustrate the feelings of the puritans towards the quakers more than a situation occurring with the con- Mary dire very dire was born sometime in the early seventeenth century and married a wealthy man from London. Named William Dyer in sixteen thirty five a couple immigrated to Massachusetts. Mary was is no stranger to controversy and would become a subject of both scored and interest borrowing her giving birth to a stillborn child that has become known as Mary. Divers Monster John winthrop gives us this lovely description of the child which he apparently got from a midwife. It was a woman child. Stillborn warn about two months before the just time having had just a few hours before it came helping till she turned it it was of ordinary bigness. It had a face but no head. The ear stood upon the shoulders. And we're like an eighths. It had no forehead but over the eyes four horns hard and sharp two of them were above the one inch long. The other two shorter the ice dining out and the mouth. Also the nose hooked upward all over the beast and back full of Sharp Prix's scales like a thorn back the naval and all the belly with the distinction of the Sax were where the back should be in the back of the hips before where the belly should have been behind between the.